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دمکراسی در هند Democracy in India

Democracy What is  

Democracy is a government of the people, for the people, by the people.”[1]

 long-time men kind experience finds Democracy as best way to rule the societies, so approach to this way of ruling system is going to be domain in the world and nowadays spectrum of dictatorship ruling systems from one side and semi-real democracy [2] on the other side accept and recognize democracy as excellent and the good valuable way of ruling and so they name himself democrat and their systems democratic. But the first question is what democracy is?

Democracy is a system of ruling, that people’s wills are at the core and centre of any decision making and all the decision are taken by people’s representatives who directly or non-directly chosen by the people via a democratic elections. Democracy is a system of governing and also a social philosophy [3] that every member of society has equalled right in society’s resource, opportunities, decision-making (about economic-political-social). This system provides a situation that some elected representatives of society in the behalf of rest, rule society for exact duration of time. Law has a very major and significant rule to regulate all aspects of individual and general process. All eligible citizens have a share to interfere directly (in the shape of referendum) and indirectly (by elect their representative) in the law making also. Self-determination reflects as vast and fundamental right for every member of society regardless of their class, gender, ethnic, religion… and bases on this conception other rules and laws are come to exist and practise. In other word, democracy means peoples rule, and in this respect is against Monarchy (dictatorship of one person, elites or majority) or oligarchy (dictatorship of a small group). In this school of thought, Power is consider as corrupt-maker and human with this way of ruling wants to control it, and lead it in the sorts of mechanism that power will divide in between some society’s representatives with a classified duties and also responsibilities. These society’s representatives appointed in determinate-duration that it can be extendable or fishable. So Democracy is one of a common outcome of long time humankind experience and life. They find it the most useful and effective in humankind salvation seeking in world’s human interaction mechanism till now.

 As result democracy is a common accepted concept of so many political approaches, and we see democracy as common part of deferent kind of world political school of thought, like liberal democracy, social democracy, constitutional monarchy democracy, religion base democracy… so we can see democracy in deferent kind in deferent levels and also deferent definitions of democracy is available, but with some common foundations defined. Although Democracy has some weak and strong point that One of them is possibility of “Majority dictatorship” against “minoritythat if the “check and balance system” that offer by Mr Montesquieu working well these can be solve comparatively also.

“Why India is calls as begets democracy in the world?”

First of all we can say that with this image-making and evaluation, the world recognises India as democracy system and it is relatively true, because most of the necessary elements that need for a democratic system is available there to show India democratic.

 Some factors like local, state and national changeable government by cast of people vote and elections, recognized multi parties system, suitable ruling structure, elected parliament’s members, strong and semi-freedom and verified mass media, Law and semi-Lawful process, independent judiciary system, levelled democratic layers from top to down level of society, defined limitation and framework of every posts in state and federal and local duties and their responsibility, capacity of changing and handing over power peacefully during the time, recognized lawful democratic action like right of demonstrate and street march by people by law and in practice, recognized right of having social and political syndicate and groups by law and in practice…

So world can see duration of practice democracy in India with the diversity of nations, casts, religions, cultures, ethnics, in somehow history also… and any excuse like war, riot, and powerful overseas and regional enemies don’t had a meaningful effect in this regards and didn’t stop democracy process there, and relatively majority and minority have exact right there. This semi-poor nation doesn’t put election practice away because of it costly process in the vast and in somehow unreachable area, so we can see that although the last general election in 2009 costs more than USA presidential election near one billion dollars for example, They didn’t stop their democracy process and they had repeated these costly elections till now perfectly.      

 Although long India National Congress (INC) ruling over this country maybe says that, it has experienced one-party dominion system before and after independent, but it had and has large number of small and big local and national parties. India is known as multi parties, parliamentary, federal and social democracy. Indian people directly choose their representative in Panchayat [4] and Municipal elections in local level and state level and also national parliament. So Indian have direct role in choosing their society runner in local and national level and a kind of effective and relatively democratic way of ruling is going on in this country.

Indian’s toleration is as an example in the world. In political performance level it can tolerate a foreigner ruler over a biggest and old parry so now Miss Sonia Gandhi [5] as an Italian women can takes ruling INC as well as ruling coalition of political parties called the “United Progressive Alliance” (UPA), was able to gain a majority and forms the government.

India has 35 states and territories that at its local, state and national level, power is divided between local, state and national parties so you cannot find any moment in the more than 60 years after India independent’s history that power in all level gathered in the hand of one party, so every time, also small parties find opportunity to have a share in power, somewhere in local or national level and based on their representation in parliaments can take share in power. So Indian democracy make and prepare appropriate opportunity for independent persons,  local and national parties members as well as two big parties like BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) and INC nominee members to show their weight in any levels to taste democracy capacities. 

 India’s democracy have a capacity to tolerate a big and all India level anti-corruption movement that one person mobilize it to force prime minister of India and Indian national parliament at the end of day to take action towered corruption by pass a Law. Mr Anna Hazare’s [6] resent movement is a good example in this regard.

 India considers as biggest democracy in the world, because of two reasons in one hand India is known as second must populated country in the world after China and so because China has no democracy foundation so India will be the most populated democratic country in the world. Secondly India is seventh biggest country in the world (with 3,166,414 KM2 after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil, Australia) so in this regard also is one of the tenth biggest in the world. So in time of elections vast number of people comes to cast their vote in the one of the world most costly election that this poor people pay it to safeguard their right. 

 India’s symbolic and practical Icons of democracy are its parliaments that’s name it “Lok Sabha” as the "House of the People" or the lower house, that it has 545 members, Most of them are elect by people’s direct vote. Upper house or “Rajya Sabha” known as "Council of States”, that can have a maximum of 250 members. And “Vidhan Sabha” as state legislatures, and based on people willing the government can change at least every 5 years. Indian can cast their vote toward three kinds of candidates, A) candidates that belong to main two-parties (BJP or INC)    B) candidates that come to election under the flag of local parties    C) independents candidates.

And although there are many critical problems that need to be solved in the India democracy performance, but we can elaborate India as marching ahead and progressive democratic country.

References:

1-       Abraham Lincoln quotes

2-       Pure democracy with all of its characters is not available in the world

3-       Foundations of Political science page 297

4-       Local self-governments at the village or small town level in India. The gram panchayat is the foundation of the Panchayat System.

5-       Miss Sonia Gandhi born Edvige Antonia Albina Maino, on 9 December 1946 is an Italian-born Indian politician and the President of the Indian National Congress, one of the major political parties of India. She is the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi and belongs to the Nehru–Gandhi family. After his assassination in 1991, she was invited by the Indian National Congress to take over the Congress but refused and publicly stayed away from politics amidst constant prodding by the Congress. She finally agreed to join politics in 1997; in 1998, she was elected as the leader of the Congress.  Since then, Sonia Gandhi has been the President of the Indian National Congress Party. She has served as the Chairperson of the ruling United Progressive Alliance in the Lok Sabha since 2004. In September 2010, on being re-elected for the fourth time, she became the longest serving president in the 125-year history of the Congress party.

6-       Kisan Baburao Hazare born on 15 June 1937, is an Indian social activist who led movements to promote rural development, increase government transparency, and investigate and punish official corruption. In addition to organizing and encouraging grassroots movements, Hazare frequently conducted hunger strikes to further his causes—a tactic reminiscent, to many, of the work of Mohandas K. Gandhi.

Course:

  Politic and Governing in India
by: Dr. Mandana Tesheyar

Article by :  Seyed Mostafa Mostafavi

M.A Student in Indian Studies

Faculty of world studies - University of Tehran     

 1391/12/5

+ نوشته شده در دوشنبه هفتم اسفند ۱۳۹۱ ساعت 11:12 شماره پست: 251

 

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Tuesday, 20 November 2018
سه شنبه, ۲۹ آبان ۱۳۹۷
سه شنبه, ۱۱ ربیع الاول ۱۴۴۰

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ارتباطات انسانی شاید از بهترین شاخص های انسانیت ما انسان هاست، که تبلور آن در رویارویی تفکر و تبادل احساسات با دیگران حاصل می شود، امروزه فن آوری های جدید به کمک انسان آمده و شرایطی را فراهم نموده است که بتوان سریعتر و وسیعتر با هم در ارتباط باشیم، نوشته هایم در این سایت، سیاه مشق هایی است که در کلنجار با دل به نوشته در آمده و لزوما درست و یا نادرست نیست.

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