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India politic سیاست در هند

In the name of God the most compassion and the merciful

 Introduction:

 Political structure is considered as one of the most significant part of any social construction. We can say in developed societies Political structure gives direction to social path and it shows their developing level among the others. In first look every nation is evaluated with this factor, that which kind of political arrangement they provide for himself and how they are ruling or how their moving forward is. In my opinion there is a direct relation between political structure and social salvation. I mean the nations who suffering bad political structure they experience worse condition in most aspects of their life. As result, political structure is determining now and future condition of any social living and their successfulness is depending on their political structure and its working process.

 1-             What is politic?

 Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions, the art or science of running governmental or state affairs. It also refers to behaviour within civil governments, but politics has been observed in other group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. It consists of "social relations involving authority or power and refers to the regulation of public affairs within a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy. [1]  2-             What is political structure?  Political structure refers to institutions or groups and their relations to each other, their patterns of interaction within political systems and to political regulations, laws and the norms present in political systems in such a way that they constitute the political landscape of the political entity. In the social domain its counterpart is Social structure. [2]

 3-             How Indian involve in politics:

 Indian people involve in politic by own decision and their involvement will be possible when they inter in one of political unit like a political party. It has a formal process that starts with a formal request in the shape of fill in a membership form and after clearance and acceptation it continues by paying membership fee.

 4-             Indian political structures:

 India as political unit is shapes by two kind of political institutions: a)    governmental units b)    non – governmental units

 5-             Indian political structures (Geographically):

 India geographically divided to 30 states [3] and six independent territories [4] that rule by a Federal government at the centre and local governments in states.

 6-             Indian political structures (Governmentally):

 India as federal, parliamentary, secular, democratic, social, multiparty, constitutional republic system has three level of governments, central and state governments and local that is the third level of government separately from central and state governments. It contains of panchayats in rural and municipalities in urban areas. These people representatives are electing directly or indirectly by the Indian people. The central government is runs by prime minister [5] now is Mr Manmohan Singh that appointed by lower house or the Parliament of India (लोक सभा Lōk Sabhā). The central cabinet including 53 Ministers is appointed by prime minister and approved by lok sabha. Prime minister is responsible to lok sabha. They enjoy states governments and in every state they have a state government that runs by a Chief minster [6]. Chief Minister appointed by state parliament or the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha विधान सभा). The States Chief Ministers are responsible to their state Legislative Assembly and state’s cabinet is choosing by Chief Ministers and also approved by their state Legislative Assembly.  Apart of government, India has a president (भारत के राष्ट्रपति) [7] also, that she/he is head of India as Nation-state and formal head of the executive, legislature and judiciary of India and the  commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The president is nominate by central government and selected by Indian parliament (Lōk Sabhā + rajya sabha + Vidhan Sabha) and she/he is the first official and constitutional person in India. The president has a governor [6] in every state. Vice President is another important post in Indian political system that is Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States or राज्य सभा). The Vice-President is chosen by a direct vote of all elected members of the lower and upper house collectively. Rajya Sabha or upper house has 250 members and every 2 years 1/3 of the total members are electing for 6 years term. Now Mr Mohammad Hamid Ansari [8] is the Vice president of India.  Now central government is leading by UPA (United Progressive Alliance) with the heading of INC (India National Congress Party). UPA is heading by Miss Sonya Gandhi (INC leader) and the opposition is leading by NDA (National Democratic Alliance) alliance is leading by BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party).

7-              Indian political structures (Non-Governmental units):

 Election factor is the main motivation for political groups to come and emerge in political stages that is take place in three level of general election at country level for lok sabha (people’s house) and state’s level for Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) or local level in Panchyats [9] elections in village or municipals in cities. So as it clears power is divided and levelled from small societies to high level at central government. Indian Political structure defined a suitable system based on social, democratic, federal, secular, pluralism values. It provided huge participant of his citizen in this sharing power at all level. Indian people can choose their leader from top to down directly or indirectly. There are a lot of non-governmental unit in India that involve in political process and they facilitate people’s political practice. Political parties that include a variety of national, states, regional, local parties… are available there and they play big role in this regards. India as multi-party system at the same time also enjoy two polar party system and the domination of INC and BJP in political battle field with the help of other parties is going on and now is show itself in the shape of coalitions.

 Now India has six national parties like: [10]

1-India national Congress (INC)       2- Bharatiya Janata Partty (BJP)     3- Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)       4- Communist Party of India (Marxist) 5- Communist Party of India (CPI)           6- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) Election Commission of India has registered 408 political parties [11] that some of them known as state parties [12]. Apart of vast variety of Indian political parties, large numbers of NGOs, Syndicates, Organisations, Students unions, Social groups also are active in large scale of subjects and fields.

 Conclusion:

 Political Structure is considering as one of the most important factor for evaluation every nation’s social development now. Indian political system is one of the developed political systems in the world.  India recognized as biggest democracy in the world and in this regard it has respected and admired by so many world’s leaders. This system is work properly and now some Indian political system like election process and structures is suggested for other counters and the latest one is Egypt that after Mubarak election is suggested to be practical by the help of Indian system.

   Reference:

 1-    http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/politic
2-    http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/political+structure
 3-    1- Andhra Pradesh 2- Arunachal Pradesh 3– Assam 4– Bihar 5– Chhattisgarh 6- Delhi 7– Goa 8- Gujarat 9- Haryana 10- Himachal Pradesh 11- Jammu & Kashmir 12- Jharkhand 13- Karnataka 14- Kerala 15- Madhya Pradesh 16- Maharashtra 17– Manipur 18– Meghalaya 19– Mizoram 20– Nagaland 21– Orissa 22– Punjab 23–Rajasthan 24– Sikkim 25- Tamil Nadu 26– Tripura 27– Uttarakhand   29- Uttar Pradesh  30- West Bengal
4-    1- Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2-  Chandigarh 3- Dadra and Nagar Haveli 4- Daman and Diu 5– Lakshadweep 6– Puducherry
5-    Mr Manmohan Singh is the 13th and current Prime Minister of India. A renowned economist, he is the only Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full five-year term, and the first Sikh to hold the office. Born: September 26, 1932 (age 80) in Gah. Height: 5' 9" (1.75 m).  Spouse: Gursharan Kaur (m. 1958). Education: St John's College, Cambridge (1956 – 1957), Children: Amrit Singh, Upinder Singh, Daman Singh

Social Structure of India
Course by: Dr. Heshmat Sadat Moinifar

Article by : Seyed Mostafa Mostafavi

M.A Student in : Indian studies 

Faculty of world studies - University of Tehran

 + نوشته شده در دوشنبه سی ام بهمن ۱۳۹۱ ساعت 11:46 شماره پست: 248

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Wednesday, 21 November 2018
چهارشنبه, ۳۰ آبان ۱۳۹۷
چهارشنبه, ۱۲ ربیع الاول ۱۴۴۰

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