Orientalism and Occidentalism Two sides of the same coin

The respected author of article that titled “Orientalism and Occidentalism Two sides of the same coin” by him, want s to say that bad is bad ether is located in this wing or in another wing. Looking to world phenomenon with the glasses of “dualism” dos not have different if you are in the west front or in the east front. Both of them (with this ideology) work the same as destroyer of peace and order in human society especially in political atmosphere.

 Dr. Mohammad Samiei (professor of Tehran university - facility of World Studies)  in this article with the comparing the beliefs of Mr Sayyid Qutb (as symbol of eastern intellectual society) and Mr Samuel Huntington (as westerner think tank) show that dualism in orientalism and Occidentalism work in same way when thoughts combine with dualism. And if we inter with this dualistic approach   to 21th century and they think the same as the approach that they had in 20th this century also will have the same destiny and again world will face with disorder and massacre and no peace.

At the eve of 21th century when the world was very optimistic of finishing the period of wars and killing man kinds in huge number, again dualism come to emerge in serious speech of President George W. Bush after the September the 11 of 2001 (collapsing twin tower building in New York) that he noted:

“Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.”

At that time the world face with dualism of USA as head of Capitalism and on the other side Islam (that defined in the term of terrorism face). Mr Bush define black and white approach in international policy and he make an artificial framework that even patron westerner like France and German governments also could not find any place in Mr Bush new dualism strategy, for himself, and this radicalism by USA even exclude France and Germany that should ignored France and punished Germany by the Bush dualists military hard wares.

From this time dualistic policy of Bush administration would say who is terrorist and should be punished and selectively who is not terrorist and which government should be come to end and which one with same character should powered and ignored. This framework should say who will be the target. So the Bush strategy divide the world between “us” and “others” , the main way of dividing in every dualistic system of thinking’s that have a bipolarised situation, phenomenon, society, culture, political thought,..,  with no grey area. Although harm other This fundamentalism and radicalism in USA policy will also destroyed foundation of western utopia that is based on pluralism.

Respected author of this article although recognise being natural dualism between some social phenomenon like “young” against “older” ,… refer that dualism is became in negative face when is speaking of dominations one on others. As it mentioned in this article :

 “In this paper dualism specifically refers to the realm of human interaction for the purpose of exploitation and domination. Historically speaking, dualism was manifested by different ideologies which attempted to justify the domination of others by theorising dualities based on sex, race, nation and class. The critical part of dualistic thought is not that there is merely a difference which can be found between each pair of men, but a dramatic difference, a ‘difference by nature’, i.e., an essential otherness which makes a specific group of men less human and hence subject to domination by another complete human being. In the social and political realms the main intention behind promoting dualistic thought is usually to justify the way ‘we’ treat them, even if we, as human beings, do not want to be treated in a similar way. The core of a dualistic argument, thus, is that ‘they’ are essentially different, totally dismissing their commonalities with us as members of the human race. It goes without saying that this argument inevitably produces on the other side a counter-response which leads to a counter-counter-response, in a vicious circle of hate. Here, in a brief historical overview, I mainly focus on some modern European examples.”

Some good example of dualism that naturalise by west philosopher are :

Feminism against macules - Nationalism - Racism - Marxism,… in this ideologies the funder of them define a two side frame that show endless conflict between two natural enemy. They exaggerate some characters and they impose monolog interaction between two society of two side that led them to dominant to others. Val Plumwood rightly defines this interaction as binges by Mr Samiei in his Article :

“A dualism is an intense, established and developed cultural expression of such hierarchical relationship, constructing central cultural concepts and identities so as to make equality and mutuality literally unthinkable. Dualism is a relation of separation and domination inscribed and naturalised in culture and characterised by radical exclusion, distancing and opposition between orders constructed as systematically higher and lower, as inferior and superior, as ruler and ruled, which treats the division as part of the natures of being constructed not merely as different but as belonging to radically different orders and kinds, and hence as not open to change.”

Mr Samiei in this article want s to mentioned that dualism is a dangerous and harmful approach that is adapted by somebody or a group against  somebody or other group.

Mr Samiei also show that new dualistic view of point in 21th century come out from new orientalism theory by “Huntington” in name of “clash between civilisation” that in this theory Islam and west is in two fronts.

He also shows us that there is no fundamental different between dualistic approach that taken by “Huntington” or “Qutb” two side fallow their agenda and political aim and draw their rival as black and white viewpoint.

as Conclusion Mr Samiei suggest s :   

Dualism, regardless of being used by whom against whom, is a flawed and dangerous ideology. As globalisation unfolds, we need more mutual understanding and more  democratic patterns for global political theory. It is the biggest intellectual and political challenge of the coming period, one could say. Dualism leads our world to new barbarianism in which conflict, war, and terror are legitimate means. Instead, we should highlight our commonalities as equal members of the human race and accept and even protect and promote diversity. Nowadays as we have understood that we are surrounded by a triangle of intimidations, i.e., the possibility of a nuclear war, environmental crisis and terrorism, humanity is in need of more coalition building to tackle these devastating threats. To cope with these dilemmas we have to dismiss ideologies that give us swords to fight against each other, making us ignore such major threats of our common environment of our common existence.”

I am also waiting for new world that nobody now himself as whole the truth and other as derailed thought, derailed culture , derailed society ,… we should hope that again all of human desire to have peace and prosperity will not destroyed by some government like Bush s administration at the time of hopes.

At the time that all the nations in the eve of 21th was preparing for in different new century that meanwhile they were tiered of war and killing each other’s. the Bush administration enter world to new long period of wars and disorder and endless mascara again worth than 20th century.

  So we have to change the way of looking to each other to understanding humanity better and recognise each other and different values and tolerate each other in good manure.

 

+ نوشته شده در شنبه پانزدهم مهر ۱۳۹۱ ساعت 17:45 شماره پست: 194

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