In the name of God the most compassion and the merciful
Though India emerged as regional power in Asia and now in the world, but Indian Separation movements makes the biggest democracy in the world as unstable unit during last six decades and its ethnical, religion or cultural minorities groups support separation movements that impact the sovereignty of India. these show its hard face during & after India independence of British rule in 1947, when two big Muslim populated lands (today are known as Pakistan and Bangladesh) were separated from it, But it didn’t finish and others separation movement were starting their effort and some of them are going on till now.
Apart of two main external threats, Separationists issue is the most challenge and trouble-maker for Indian leaders for last six decades. India’s national security is affected and threated by this huge problem. In this field India’s internal and external side is very close to each other’s . India is facing with two big and active outsider players like China and Pakistan that, its internal security in somehow related to them relatively.
But it is clear that Separation movement most of the time is related to a minority’s feeling of no satisfaction among a majority, its excuses are rooted in feeling of discrimination in the field of cultural, ethnical, religious, political, economic.... Their goal is in the form of demanding full political separation, seeking greater autonomy, independence, self-determination, partition…
MAOISTS SEPARATION MOVEMENT:
Naxalites separation movement is vast movement that separated in a large number of Indian states. The Naxalites (Maoists) are the vast variety of left-wing militancy groups who are active in the region named "Red Corridor" the stretched area from West Bengal state in North East to Karnataka state in the South West. They are active across 220 districts out of 655 in two third of Indian states (20 out of 30). They are occupied or affected about 40% of India’s territories by their operation. Growing Naxalites operations in major urban centres, including New Delhi and other major cities as well as rural area especially, year by year, is going to make them as “the most serious internal threat to India's national security” as Prime Minister Manmohan Singh cautioned it in 2007, alarm security belles in India. Based on Indian intelligence reports Naxalites guerrillas are estimated 20,000 armed rebels and include 50,000 regular or fulltime organizers and mobilizers, with the numbers growing. Therefor Naxalites military operations make India’s securities organisation out of effective reaction for last one decade.
SEVEN SISTERS SEPARATION MOVEMENT:
The “Seven Sisters” are including Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. These states are located on the edge of north eastern of Indian borders. These peoples have meaningful different in field of ethnical and linguistically from the rest of Indian. A large number of armed groups are active there and some of them seek separate states, some fighting for autonomy and others demanding complete independence.
Assam separation movement looking for ‘’Bodoland’’ state, its military wing are ‘’United Liberation Front of Assam’’ (ULFA) and ‘’Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam’’ and ‘’National Democratic Front of Bodoland’’ Assam is one of important state in this regard that its militancy activation is back long time ago, it separation eruption at the time of prime ministerial of late Indira Gandhi was show it hard face when ULFA start its movement. ULFA has been in the forefront of a liberation struggle since 1979. Although ULFA is the main but two dozen other militant groups also were active there, some report says that over 10,000 people have lost their lives and thousand have been displaced during the last 25 years.
The divide between the tribal and non-tribal settlers is the cause of the trouble in Meghalaya. Like other states in the region there is a demand for independence along tribal lines. The Achik National Volunteer Council has followed since 1995 the formation of an Achik Land in the Caro Hills, whereas the Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council seeks to free the state from Garo domination.
Arunachal Pradesh separation movement that seeking establish of the pre-British ‘’Teola country’’, that would include area currently in Arunachal Pradesh as well as neighbouring Assam. the group that politically is active in this regard is ‘’All Hajong Chakma Homeland Movement’’ and its military group is ‘’Arunachal Dragon Force’’ that is a forceful secessionist movement fighting to fund autonomous area of ‘’Hajong Chakma Homeland’’.
Mizoram separation movement that Proposed state of ‘’Zozam’’ the groups like ‘’Zomi Revolutionary Organization’’ and ‘’Mizoram Farmers Liberation Force’’ are active in this way. Mizoram's tensions have arisen largely due to the Assamese domination and the neglect of the Mizo people by India. In 1986, the main secessionist movement led by the Mizo National Front ended after a peace accord, bringing peace to the region. However, secessionist demands by some groups continue to insist on an independent Hmar State.
Nagaland separation movement is fighting for establishing of ‘’Nagalim’’ or ‘’People's Republic of Nagaland’’. In this regard they have a Government of the People's Republic of Nagaland in exile ‘’National Socialist Council of Nagaland’’ as an active militant group can name in this respect. Nagaland was created in 1963 as 16th state of Indian Union by parts it from Assam. It separation movement is one of the oldest in India since 1947 and it demanding full independence. This area is occupied by a variety of tribes, ethnicities, cultures and religion. Around 400 tribes or sub tribes leaves there and most of them seeking a separate homeland. The area is rich in oil reserves worth billions dollers. Thousands have died since the insurgency began.
Manipur separation movement that targets establishing of ‘’Republic of Manipur’’ the militant groups that are active in this regard are ‘’ Hmar People's Convention–Democrat’’ and ‘’Manipur People’s Liberation Front’’ and ‘’United National Liberation Front’’ and ‘’Revolutionary People's Front of Manipur’’ and ‘’People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak’’. Independence Manipur has been actively followed by several rebel groups since 1964. Many socialist groups are active there and people’s participation in this field is high.
The ethnic tensions and also the Bengali immigrants matter after the 1971 war from one side and unattached culture of this region’s people with Indian side and building of a fence by the government along the Bangladesh border that led to a rebellion in the 1970s… make very harsh living conditions for thousands of homeless refugees there. The National Liberation Front of Tripura and the All Tripura Tiger Force demand kicking out of Bengali speaking immigrants.
TAMIL NADU SEPARATION MOVEMENTS:
Tamils separation movement is trying to establish a Tamil populated country. Liberation Tamil Tiger Eelam (LTTE) ‘s movement that was backed by Indian side for Tamil freedom in Sri Lanka took access to Indian side that have common ethnicity, religion, language and culture And attracted mass support for their foundation. By developing of anti-India and pro-secessionist sentiment in Tamil Nadu at India side, independence movement raised. Tamil see that a part from a common religion (Hinduism), they have nothing common with the centre. So they said if Nepal can have an independent existence as a Hindu state next to India why Tamil Nadu cannot?
SIKHES’S SEPARATION MOVEMENT:
Punjab separation movement as one of the big fights in the north of India near disputed Kashmir area, Proposed funding state of ‘’Khalistan’’ a country for Sikhs people, that point Punjab state in India and Pakistan, one of the most developed and riche state in the agricultural, industry and culture. The Sikh community as influential community has had long struggle against the Hindu domination. they feel that they betrayal by the central government at the time of partition in 1947 and India’s promise for their autonomy was put away after independent of India. So at Indira Gandhi prime mistrial, it came to be a military clash between the Sikh militant groups and central government and ultimately war came to the Golden Temple, in 1981, where an estimated 3000 people, including a large number of pilgrims, died. This pick war was ended in a military victory but a political disaster for Indira Gandhi. Soon afterwards in 1984, she was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards and this in turn led to a general massacre of the Sikhs across India. Although the situation has returned to normal, the Sikh community has not forgiven the Hindus for this violation and tensions continue. The demand for Khalistan is still alive and about 17 movements for a separate Sikh state remain active.
KASHMIR SEPARATION MOVEMENT:
Kashmir Separation movement is seeking Independent Kashmir state or attending to Pakistan. In this movement two kind of Political and military organisations are involve. ‘’All Parties Hurriyat Conference’’, ‘’Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF)’’… as political and ‘’Harkat-ul-mujahideen’’, ‘’Jaish-e-Mohammad’’, ‘’Lashkar-e-Toiba’’… as military group. The Kashmir issue is return to the time of separation India and Pakistan and for more than six decades, it is going to be alive and it passed several phases. It arose when India occupied of predominantly Muslim state forcibly against the wishes of its people and in ruin of the principle of partition of British India. A struggle for independence the valley of Kashmir has been started since then and hundreds of thousands of people have lost their lives or disappeared and international efforts and The resolutions of the UN Security Council that have called for demilitarization of the valley and holding of referendum to determine the will of the people don’t work, so the issue is continuing till now.
ANDREA PRADESH SEPARATION MOVEMENT:
Andréa Pradesh Separation movement Muslim populated area had tried to have a Muslim country like Pakistan in south of India but it became control by India after its start but no based on some others factor, Andrea’s people fighting for separation state of Telangana.
Several internal war that India was facing all corner of its territories after independent, and following Killing of large number of its people, destroyed its friendly face among other nation fairly, and now with the rising of India military power its neighbours are showing India phobia and internally some say that India is at war with itself . This situation seriously threaten India’ stability and has bad effect on its democracy. But the most dangerous scenario will be the clash of poor and rich that estimation of its happening is guesstimate. Even though India over came on some internal problem like Khalistan movement but some others are going to be more stronger like Naxalites movement and the potential of re-eruption of some is very high So as it clear India has been faced with so money internal challenges that it should be add to some new challenge that estimation of its happening is high, like clash of rich and poor classes and adding not sufficient unification among Indian as one nation and also interfere of outside hand like US, can put India on turmoil in future.
India hard response to the minorities that are include in separations movement that is shows itself in the face of giving un-limited power backed by law to its security-military forces that involve in affected area, and cruel action by them toward innocent and common people like killing them and rap their women… in somehow encourage minority to follow their goal strongly resent case in Kashmir is good example for it. Doing any things in the name of combating terrorism have very bad effect on minority viewpoint toward India government.
1- ‘’There was little distinction between internal security and external security and identified the internal security challenges as having ‘some roots outside India and (is) linked to what happens outside the country’’ Indian Finance Minister (former home minister) , Shri P. Chidambaram on February 6, 2013 -http://www.idsa.in/keyspeeches/IndiasNationalSecurityChallengesandPrioritie
2- Suhas Chakma, Director of the Asian Centre for Human Rights in New Delhi
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Politic and Governing in India
by: Dr. Mandana Tesheyar
Article by : Seyed Mostafa Mostafavi
M.A Student in Indian Studies
Faculty of world studies - University of Tehran
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