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COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS - HERITAGES OF THE CRON’S TERRITORIES

In the Name of God the Munificent the Merciful

   Orientalism

 COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS

 heritages of the Crown’s territories

 Practical side of Orientalism

   “They have produced and reduced nations, massacred populations, dispossessed people of their land, culture, language and history shifted vast number of people from one place to another” (Pennycook,1998: 19).

   the sun is never set in British Empier

                                              CONTENTS

 Preface:

 1- Definition of Colonial system

 2- How Colonializing in new lands start and continue

 3- How British Colonial system is ended

 4- stablish of British Commonwealth of Nations

 5- English language in Colonial and Commonwealth era

 6- Developing models as post-colonial program by the West

 7- US role in post-colonial process co-ordinate with UK

 8- Christianize as the goal of Commonwealth and post-Commonwealth

 9- Colonial History era see as Common wealth

 10- Establish on common heritage of Law and Parliamentary system

 11- Accepting British monarchy as head of Commonwealth of Nations

12- Commonwealth of Nations with No constitution

13- Commonwealth of Nations’ role in its member domestic affair

14- Commonwealth of Nations has no role in its people’s life

 15- Commonwealth of Nations and following The West values

 16- colonialist practice in commonwealth ruling

 17- Commonwealth of Nations and sports games

 18- Sub-Commonwealth of Nations organizations

 19- the Commonwealth of Nations members  Conclusion

 REFERENCE

 Preface:  Colonialism is practical, aperient’s face and by some means is the result of Orientalist works. In this meaning some orientalists are the scientists or intellectuals body, whose study is about the regions expanse which name it orient (is conclude the so many countries).  Their job is collecting, formulising, theorising, shortening the information that will be very necessary for colonists. subjects that colonist should do or not to do, or should be care or Know during their jab performance in colonialized lands. They prepare information and summarize it scientifically or semi-scientifically that help colonialist to know better and govern colonialized territories scientifically and sufficiently. So based on this fact, there is a bilateral two side-partnership and relationship between colonists and orientalists.  After ending old colonial era, I mean after the World War II that direct ruling colonists over “others” is completely come to finish point, new era is start, but it show itself the same as old era fairly. It means that old colonised area that is expect to be free of superiority of colonists, face with new colonizing  ways. The world nowadays faces with ex-colonists and new imperialism1 which controls the world and nations via international organization. The West upper hand in international organisation is put their agenda on the priority in international organization and they follow their interests by the use of international organisation capacities. Commonwealth of Nations is one of the alive and organised international organizations that play its role in ex-colonials British territories. In fact it is the Continuation of colonial role of British colonists in the present time. It is something like safeguarding the interests of ex- masters (colonists) over its ex-Slavered nations during colonial time, in diversified forms such as trade, commerce, literature, culture, politic and Knowledge.  The duty of some orientalists in between is (and was) to prepare information that naturally they need to achieve total result of colonial’s domination as well as influence on the natives mind that, colonialism is come to lighten their dark situation. Their duty were, to inter into the native’s head this idea that, if the settlers, leave “the Crown’s lands”, they while back into barbarism, humiliation and cruelty2.

 1-Definition of Colonial system: Elleke Boehme defined colonialism as the settlement of territory, the exploitation or development of resources, and attempts to govern the indigenous inhabitants of occupied lands (Boehmer as qtd. in McLeod 2000: 8).  Observe colonialism as a radically diaspora movement, involving the temporary or permanent dispersion and settlement of millions of Europeans over the entire world (Ashcroft et al., 2001: 69). Colonialism is only one form of practice, which results from the ideology of imperialism, imperialism does not demand settlement of different places in order to work. Childs and Williams define imperialism as the extension and expansion of trade and commerce under the protection of political, legal and military controls (Williams as qtd. in McLeod 2000: 8) Colonialized lands is vast area from Africa, South America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Indian subcontinent and it Island, most of Indo-China, parts of the Middle East and the Islands of the Indian and the Pacific oceans as well as  Caribbean territories. “The colonised as a population of degenerate types on the basis of racial origin in order to justify conquest and to establish systems of administration and instruction” (Homi K. Bhabha, 1994:70).  So it is clear this system imposed to “others” by colonist and they did whatever they can to have best and revenue of their imposed economic, cultural, political domination over colonised people. 

2-How Colonializing in new lands start and continue: The story is starts with coming of commercial ships and the process of colonializing is began when the Western new-comer put their foot in new lands, so they start the job with their trader’s class that were welcomed by coast liner inhabitant. At first they establish their trading establishments and then they start signing friendly, wealthier and better of agreement with new lands native rulers. But the main story of colonising is begun when they attacked by unpleasant local peoples, who were find himself under bad Side effects of new-comer activates, so for protecting themselves they employ local armed forces under the ruling of own officers and by the expansion of their capability and their territory they make a colonial Zone, and it is just a start for that area. In the map you can see one the pioneer colonist in Marine way Capt. James Cook first voyage (26th Aug 1769-12 July 1771)3  

3-How British Colonial system is ended: It is the fact that everything that has a start, inevitably it has to be ready for its end and colonial system also is not an exception in between. We had a short paragraph about the successful and prideful starting of colonial era and its following long plaintive existence for centuries, but It is very clear that termination of British power in colonial regions was because of British Empire weakness to control local force of the “territories of the Crown”4, and not a desire of a colonialist to putting away colonial structure as bad or injustice and wrong system. The process of British Empire sun set is start in 18th century when United States of America, starts its struggle toward liberation from UK in 1781 (the war of Independence against Britain)5 and this process is continues in 19th century and it come to end in 20th. Based on colonials demand and pressures, UK starts to less control and its authority on colonial lands.  the Most of colonialized country also became independent during or after World War II, when Great Britain was under tough and dangerous pressure of “German Nazism” ‘s War or side effect of it, and at this atmosphere so many colonialized nations catch good opportunity to escape from British ruling system, that long time, imposed to them. The good example of it, is Indian Subcontinent that became free of British ruler (that has been appointing by British Queen) in 1947. So you see colonizers never go out of other‘s lands by own decision, and local inhabitants kicked them out by force and freedom straggles. And we can say, imperialistic way of thinking toward the “others” had no change in their approach toward slaved nations and this “withdrawing” or returning back to their lands was imposed to them by the colonialized natives.  Because of the situation that impose to colonists by The “Orients”, at the weakening time of “occident’s” forces, we can say their going out was by force and not colonists chooses. It is clear that after these big defeat, the colonists search for new way to save previous position or changing defeating atmosphere. It was “The Commonwealth of Nations” an appropriate idea by London to re-establish their ruling or domination to re-produce their Greatness and dreams over ex-colonised lands again.    So I consider commonwealth of Nation as result of this atmospheres and one of the reasons that I think fairly continues of colonial era. Still after long time commonwealth Community is going on in its modern era6 and I think that is new face of colonialism and it continues the process of colonial time in small scale. I want to add that, Colonialism is the practical face of Orientalism‘s Theory and the practical face of the West dominion’s on East in 20th century and future, because the role of orientalists in ruling staff of new imperialists counters like Bernard Lewis in Bush administration,.. And their influence on new world process is not evitable and when today also look at orientalists the same looking, thought, way of interpretation of the Eastern is going on and some of them looking westernising world and also civilized the others.  The Commonwealth as two-part word mad by “Common” and “Wealth”. But the question is which wealth is common in between “occupier” and “occupied” lands, what is the joining subject between them? Colonial is a system of ruling that one side is having control and the other side is controlled,… long time colonising slopes “others ‘s” Wealth and resources from colonialized side to colonizers side so this system of ruling, give Wealth to Occident’s side and  poverty to Orients side.  

4-Establish of British Commonwealth of Nations:  “The Commonwealth of Nations” is a Group of countries that were under control, occupation or colonialized of great British Empire, and they are famous and named as the “British Crown’s territories” that make a community of about 53 countries that after freedom although most of them are known as independent unit, but they keep their relation with the Crown or head of colonialist power throughout this international mechanism (except Cameron and Mozambique that they have been never Crown Territory)7. The term of Commonwealth first time used by the Lord of “Roseberry” in 1884 “to refer to the British Empire as a Commonwealth8 of Nations”9 also the Balfour Declaration in 1926 is a historical point for these kind of countries in Middle East. So as it seen “Commonwealth” is come to exist by a colonist first time. The London Declaration as a new and modern term and shape of Commonwealth of Nations, issue on 26 April 1949 by United Kingdom, and some country like Canada (independent in 1867), Commonwealth of Australia (independent in 1901), the Union of South Africa (independent in 1909), New Zealand (independent in 1910), and now India, Pakistan and Ceylon which are going to taste their independent and also the member of the modern Commonwealth of Nations on the issue of India's continued membership of the Commonwealth after independent that by re-joining of these countries, marked as a birth day of the modern Commonwealth of Nations. In 1971 this community that at that time include 30% of glob’s lands base on Singapore declaration, agree to have multilateral co-operations on common values like Human right, law governances, individual’s freedom, equality, democracy, free trade and world peace. It is wonderful that new Commonwealth and modern one same the previous one is under ruling of the UK Queen and From 1949 till now the Commonwealth of Nations is accepted to head by Queen Elizabeth II of UK and with the help of executive and other its staff like Secretaries-General like Arnold Smith ( from Canada, 1965), Sir Shridath Ramphal (from Guyana, 1975); Chief Emeka Anyaoku (from Nigeria, 1990); Sir Donald McKinnon (New Zealand, 2000); and Mr. Kamalesh Sharma (from India, 2005) its secretariat is located in London. It is to added that in 21th century also as continues of colonialism period, 16 of 53 countries of Commonwealth of Nations now head by Queen Elizabeth II of UK, the list of this countries include:  Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu (Those states are called “imperial Commonwealth realms”) 10.

5- English language in Colonial and Commonwealth era:   One of the common focuses that also is mention in commonwealth document is the colonials formal language, as “common heritage of the English language” that hold them together 11. So as it clear one of the imposed subjects in colonial time to the colonialized culture, now in post-colonialism era is consider as Commonwealth of Nations ‘s, common wealth. Is it really correct to consider a foreign language for an occupied land’s people as wealth?!!  As it is clear, spreading of English Language was a colonial’s aim 12 and today is the commonwealth goal, so as you see in this issue, colonial and commonwealth move, have the same direction. “The contemporary emergence of the English language as an essential international language is itself, now is considers as a product of the intercontinental character of the Commonwealth of Nations.”13 But colonists and now Commonwealths, consider English language as container of their culture, value, thought,… and in post-colonials era also they should take its advantage to continue their relation with ex-colonialized and English consider as common language in between, that will play very good and essential role, so as result, it is the fact that nowadays The West can control public feeling in the world by their mass media, that meanwhile English language play the main and essential role.  As some of the expertise, same as Daniel Defoe in its “The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe” believes, it was the early literary works to spread English language and to familiarize the colonised with the ‘superior’ English culture14.  Penny cook argues that the novel, The Life and Journeys of “Robinson Crusoe” projects Crusoe as the model for the rational and dedicated way in which the British created their Empire (Penny cook, 1998: 12). During his long stay on the Island, Crusoe saves the life of a native from the hands of savages and names him Friday to commemorate the day of their meeting. Phillipson (1992) argues:  Crusoe’s lesson to Friday, in which he made it his business to teach him everything that was proper to make him useful, handy and helpful, is perhaps the locus classics of the start of English linguistic imperialism …. Crusoe’s relationship with Friday reflects the racial structure of Western society at the heyday of slavery. Crusoe’s assumption of mastery over Friday and his immediate start on the project of teaching Friday English are iconic moments in the long history of the global spread of English. (Phillipson as qtd. in Pennycook 1998: 11). A.G Eyre’s (1971) As you see in Crusoe’s story as example, English literature and especially post-colonialism literature have big role in spreading English language via the world and appear as justifier of colonialism. One of the post-colonialism discourses after second world war II is “Commonwealth literature” that is starts form 1950s with the purpose of describing literatures in English of countries with a tasting history of colonialism15. It was an attempt to gathering the writings materials of the former colonies spread all over the world, on one stage. From the time of announcing English language as the official language of education, and then opened universities and literature of Europe to the colonialized people a diverse community with literature produced in India, Canada, Australia and the Caribbean’s, …in English is starts. The colonial discourses developed during late 1970s and 1980s and help to understand how and why this happened. The theories of the colonial discourses have played a significant role in the development of post colonialism. They explore the ways to keep the colonised peoples subservient to colonial rule. The colonised people were seen as lacking history, culture, religion, intelligence and craft of administration and thus it became clear that it was the European’s duty to fill the vacuum. In this regard we review some scientists view in following paragraphs:  The real aim of colonialism was to control people’s wealth and this was imposed through military conquest and subsequent political dictatorship. But its most important area of domination was the mental universe of the colonised, the control through culture, of how people perceived themselves and their relationship to the world. Economic and political control can never be complete or effective without mental control. To control people’s culture is to control their tools of self-definition in relation to others (Ngugi 1981: 16).  it is clear that to control people‘s mentality, it is necessary to take relation with them and the relation need a common and understandable language with two side, so English language will come to help occupier to take effective relation with their occupied, so because of this colonials and also post-colonials both have great emphasize to spreading English language to use it at tool in this regards.  Ngugi notices two aspects in the process of colonialism:  The destruction or deliberate undervaluing of a people’s culture, their art, dances, religions, history, geography, education, orator and literature and the conscious elevation of the language of the coloniser. The domination of a people’s language by the languages of the colonising nations was crucial to the domination of the mental universe of the colonised (Ngugi 1981: 16).    The postcolonial writers attempt to give resistance to colonialism and its exploitative ideology through various strategies. The shackles of cultural imperialism are to be overthrown. The dominant ways of thinking, speaking and writing are to be challenged. Salman Rushdie emphasises the need to decolonise language: The language, like so much else in the colonies needs to be decolonised, to be remade in other images, if those who use it from positions outside the Anglo- Saxon culture are to be more than artistic Uncle Toms (Rushdie as qtd.in McLeod  22). The collapse of the great European (British, Portugal, French, Spain,…) Empires  was replaced by the world economic-military hegemony of the United States. And also the dominance of mass media forces, the west have to re-think of classical frontiers, and in new era’s international movement like Commonwealth of Nations mechanism will be effective to guardian historical achievement. So English language as heritage of colonialized time is consider important so spreading it and collect of its materials is a main agenda of U.K cultural diplomatic mission and in this filed, US is also consider as neck to neck alliance for English language bloc and not as rival for UK. Because US ‘s local English speaker established its hegemony on others languages speaker in US, as their power come to surface at the time of determine of US official language in constitutional debates, that pro-English language had big victory on US’s German, French, Spain,… speaker as sum of this languages speakers (especially German), was more than English speakers. So now in English language regard, US attempt is parallel with Commonwealth of Nation’s founder‘s post-colonialism’s target.     Postcolonial English writers’ spread and enrich this language and make it prepare to be the first diplomatic, scientific, formal and international language in the world. The sense of duty, that starts in colonial era and continues in post-colonial era till now. Post-colonial English language as representative of colonist is spoken in so many countries now and contains settler’s values, culture and a tool to connect them together very well.  Now the English publisher in the world has main role to vast this capability in the form or books, magazine, newspaper and Net written material and they are more ready to welcome Globalization era than others and in this era also they want to show their domination again and extend it for long time.  Some scholars in the field of cultural studies such as Masao Miyoshi and Arif Dirlik question the premature appellation of the prefix postcolonial when the globalisation of culture and capital may be leading humanity towards a neo-colonial condition (Murray, 1999: 870). Although some English writers like late Edward Said and Frantz Fanon (who speaks of psychological levels of colonialism) criticise this situation, as Mr Said also wants to acknowledge the West’s their radical ‘otherness’, but most of Writers accept this domination and move in Western path. So some scientist like Ngugi speaks of ‘decolonising the mind’ of people to answer the problem.

6- Developing models as post-colonial program by the West: Now the Nations who tasted colonizing ages, face with this question that what they should do after independent from colonist? during long living under occupiers system their routine life, consumes model, same as cultural and economic behaviour, way of thinking, also the life style,... are change, and new model of living is coming to emerge. So their needs and situation are completely deferent from before colonizers come, so new local movement after independent are in hesitation position , at this time some international organisation like the Commonwealth of Nations are available to say and lead them to pass and solve the maters basis on its founder’s interests and lead them. In this regard One of the suggestions of the West scientists is “Developing Models” that recommend by them, to help the Third world to move toward developing path, and in contrast some scientists are against this models and avoid Third World to move toward this process. For example the philosopher Vandana Siva assesses development as a post-colonial project, a choice for accepting a model of progress in which the entire world is remade itself on the model of the colonising modern West, without having to undergo the subjugation and exploitation that colonialism entailed. Development was thus reduced to a continuation of the process of colonisation; it became an extension of the project of wealth creation in modern Western patriarchy’s economic vision, which is based on the on the exploitation and degradation of nature and on the exploitation and erosion of other cultures (Merchant, 1996: 273).

7- US role in post-colonial process co-ordinate with UK: Although US were one of the Crowns’ territory in 18th century and escape from colonial ruling system as a pioneer in this regard, but it never joint to the Commonwealth of Nations. And also Ireland that it not joining to this international organisation, and became a hope for Commonwealth of Nations’s founder to see Ireland re-joined to the Crown territory, till now16.   UK as Founder of Commonwealth of Nations, nowadays have very near policy with US in international process and re-shaping the World after world war II, and they appear neck to neck mover in most of world policy, so we can see US as upper hand and real heritor of big E.U Empires, with UK in same front, and US - UK role in international mater is as completer now. As the contemporary cultural critics “Aijaz Ahmad”, “Arif Dirlik” and “Rey Chow” have emphasized, the rise of post-colonial studies in the US academy is co-extensive with US foreign policy and economic investment in the ‘Third world’. Morton observes:  This historical parallel might suggest that post-colonial studies indirectly serve the interests of US foreign policy and global economic expansion by producing knowledge about the Third world. To counter this difficulty, Spivak (an Indian born US scientist) persistently emphasises how in her own critical thought she resists the temptation to appear as a spokesperson or ‘native informant’ for the ‘Third World’ in the ‘First World’ academy, even though she acknowledges that the position of a famous postcolonial intellectual who lives and works in the Western metropolitan academy and champions the cause of minority groups is a   position that is beset with contradiction and paradox (Morton, 2003: 8). Existents of Neo-colonialism is raise when the scientist find that after finishing colonialism the same rules and discourses is going on in international debate, and capitalism is going to replace itself instead of coloniser toward Third World, and “Debate goes on in the current academic arena on the issue of how neo-colonialism and global capitalism have taken up the control of ex-colonies or Third World countries. Critics argue that “the new elite brought to power by independence and often educated and trained by colonial powers were non-representative of the mass and even acted as unwitting or willing agents (compradors) for the formal colonial rulers. In a wider sense, neo-colonialism has come to signify the inability of so-called Third World economies to develop an independent economic and political identity under the pressures of globalization”  (Ashcroft et al., 1998: 163).

8- Christianize as the goal of Commonwealth and post-Commonwealth17: Christianity as Westernize Abrahamic religion, although colonists and imperialists has no feeling of any danger from it, but also colonialist and settlers in their work in the battlefield of new territories take help and enjoy of them, and under the umbrella of this westernize reformed religion (after renaissance and before it), colonialist will feel no worry to take any action toward colonialized people. The servants of this religion also in the name of spreading Christianity help warriors to achieve their goals in captured territories and as cultural arm of settler, they start their jab after victory. In fact their missionary job after taking control of new land is start and by their religion technique they convert colonized people to Christianity. Also their teaches help colonizer to change colonialize d’s mind to accept new situation and the process of people‘s mind changing toward being a member of the Crown territories is start. Another role of this missionary group is arise when coloniser cannot interfere directly in some area, at this time missionary groups will be good representative for settler to go there and make the situation ready for armed force to go there or collect the information that they need to go to new lands, in this role missionary group play the role of orientalists to gather and analysis the material and facts that they need. So the missionary group are very useful for settler as path provider before the siege and controller after victory. Coloniser for achieving full advantage of their job during starting, taking victory and after victory and expanding of their achievement need to this kind of Christianity sidelong himself. So adopting the Western Values and religion is the slogan and aim of colonialist, Commonwealth as well as a “Post-Colonialism” era phenomenon. In British colonies, “the colonized population had to convert to Christianity, learn the English language, and read English literature in school. As a result, they adopted Western values, and the colonizers were eventually able to rule by consent rather than violence.18” In “The Impact of European Colonialism on the Indian Caste System”19 you can see the missionary desire to spread Christianity came from the growth of evangelical Christianity and it was this evangelical trend that was most instrumental in the invention and systemization of Hinduism. This is due to evangelical attempts to create a singular definable religious opponent. Pennington states that, “Alongside evangelical Christianity emerged the concept of a unitary Indian religion later known as Hinduism Without the evangelical drive to spread the teachings of Christianity, the religious requirement for the construction of Hinduism would not exist. An example of generalization demonstrated by Pennington is the missionary obsession with idol worship. He states that “it was the idol that was blamed for commanding Hindu fascination and worship and thwarting the missionary’s crusade for the sweeping religious transformation of India.” The vast Hindu population was defined as Hindu not because of their one singular religious worship, but, on the contrary, to cope with the multifaceted religious worship of a vast population. So Christian missionary group before and during and after colonist job have a defined role and arm to arm play their roles. So many jobs that make their presentation necessary for setter during the process from first steps to the end of it and also management after colonised new lands.   

9- Colonial History era see as Common wealth: Although in exact era of time colonist and coloniser have common history and the establisher of this international group also speaks of common history, but in fact is there that two deferent history, at one side there is a power and domination and the other side a colonised territory which ruled by the settler. What is common in between?  The links of history and the bond of the English language have been reinforced by professional, sporting, scientific, trading and political associations amongst members of the Commonwealth.

10- Establish on common heritage of Law and Parliamentary system: Another common heritage of this two, is Law and Parliamentary system (The commonwealth Parliamentary Association), how and why this subject is became the Commonwealth of Nations countries goal? The answer is after establishing of secretary-general office in London in 1965, new program to have effective system of high judicial decisions among the Commonwealth countries became available, the reason that make this aim achievable, one century working of Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. So in new and modern era of commonwealth they aim to improve it and make it as “very high standards of judicial integrity, maintained the essential unity of common law legal doctrine, upheld constitutional principles and frequently defended basic civil rights”. The main goal is to have a “Commonwealth-wide international court”20 that will have judges from Commonwealth countries.  As it is clear the Commonwealth with this system of Judicial that has legal opportunity to interfere in 53 countries and any important dissatisfaction among internal political group it lead them to London to solve it and you can imagine that London also will work based on his international interests. And it is continues of UK interferes in second world affairs that legally will be provided. With this dream UK seeks its old influence on the Crown territories on basic foundation like law and law-makers. In this field they had some successful steps like the Caribbean Court.  Program that they follow to make link Commonwealth countries is in the field of Law and judiciary to have further publications (like Commonwealth Law reports, Bulletin and Net) and scholarships that will lead to exchange information between them.  The other aim by Commonwealth founder is establish within parliamentary institutions relation, this is also a successful step that the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association now is working. They believe that “Links of this kind are a useful and still continuing heritage. We do well to preserve them and to continue to learn from each other within them” 21. In a recent speech to the Commonwealth Legal Forum, Sir Sridith Ramphal said that the most celebrated links within the Commonwealth of Nations were centred on language, learning and law. The Trinidad and Tobago Affirmation, also agreed at the CHOGM conference in 2009, declares recognises “that parliaments and representative local government and other forms of local governance are essential elements in the exercise of democratic governance”.  Of course, today such legislatures have the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) with its broader membership base and global operation.  However, there is something specially comfortable and friendly in judges, magistrates, lawyers and parliamentarians severally meeting together with Commonwealth colleagues.  In such meetings there is, inevitably, a wider span of shared traditions and interests:  often unspoken and sometimes even unconscious. So as it clear Commonwealth‘s think tanks seeking large relation with ex-Crown territories, it make London able to follow its national and international goal. Law and law-makers is fundamental branch of any country that have strong role in ruling and important jab in every system running so ex-colonist have strong emphasis on having relation with this ruling wing of the Crown territories.

11- Accepting British monarchy as head of Commonwealth of Nations: Accepting head of British monarchy as head of Commonwealth is necessary for the members of Commonwealth of Nations at the time of entrance in this international organization 22, as it mention in 1949 London Declaration 23. It is wonderful that the head of this international community of Nations is given to Queen of British Empire that is the symbol of proud in Great Britain Empire and not the Prime Minister of U.K that in today’s UK ruling, is a main decision maker. as you see in symbolic and practice way, also it is compulsory for member to accept the Queen (after death of King George VI his daughter the Queen Elizabeth II, as his  successor is the monarch head till now) of British as head of Commonwealth of Nations and loyalty to Crown.  For example when independent India wants to re-join to this community, that was member of it in the colonial period, in modern shape of it also India should formally accept the Crown as head of this new and modern community. as it is mentioned in 1959 declaration in London “owe a common allegiance to the Crown,… which is also the symbol of their free association…. acceptance of The King as the symbol of the free association the Crown is the symbol of the free association of the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations ... united by common allegiance to the Crown.”   the Queen, as head of the Commonwealth gifts Marlborough House (a royal palace in London) to the Secretariat of the Commonwealth In addition to the specific professional and governmental bodies that have regular meetings of ministers of Commonwealth nations who hold similar governmental groups, some of the civil society and organisations such as the Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS), that have grown within the Commonwealth have a broad general focus that lays emphasis on shared experience, plays an important function in stimulating and maintaining the links that exist within the Commonwealth.  Most importantly, in recent times, the RCS has taken a lead in exploring attitudes of Commonwealth citizens, and their knowledge, concerning the Commonwealth; their criticisms of present arrangements; and their suggestions for ways in which the Commonwealth links might be strengthened. So the ex-Crown territories after long time freedom struggle and victory again come under colonial-ruler and she can influences via an international big group like the Commonwealth of Nations. As it is clear the role of British royal in post-colonial and colonial time is relatively the same and she head this community.  

12- Commonwealth of Nations with No constitution: Commonwealth have No constitution 24 and this is another space and capacity that make situation ready for UK to play its own role and it make possible for the head of this organisation to move forward base on its interests. And use its superiority to impose its procedures “The Commonwealth as it is today evolved with the advance of British domestic constitutionalism”25 nowadays commonwealth base on some joint declarations and formal announcement and the decisions take come out from some governmental common meeting, has grey goal and unclear movement.   

13- Commonwealth of Nations’ role in its member domestic affair:  British power, use the capacity of the Commonwealth of Nations and some mechanism that reached during last decades, as tools on the road to achieves its international interest and I think this is the main purpose of the founder of this organization. One of the good example of this process is take action against anti-Western countries among its members, so when Zimbabwe under Mr Robert Mugabe don’t listen to their suggestion toward its white people rights, it face with suspension of its membership, Two countries of the Commonwealth have witnessed their membership suspended because of democracy or human rights defaults, Zimbabwe in 1994 and the Fiji Islands in 2009.26  Electoral observers is a Commonwealth organ, and as they consider electoral democracy as a core principle of the Commonwealth of Nations, so the Commonwealth Secretariat naturally define a role for itself to play an important role in encouraging and safeguarding election result in Commonwealth members. This makes a good opportunity for them to follow their interests in this regards. This process also consider efficient, and supported by some other Western-lead organization like the European Union, the Council of Europe, the Carter Foundation in the United States and various agencies of the United Nations that become involved in international electoral observance. Electoral observer missions in Nigeria, Cameroon, Zanzibar, Kenya and Zimbabwe, Ghana (2008) and Sri Lanka (2010) can names as some of their practical mission in this concern.    And because of English language as known language between the member of this community and historical knowledge that as result of long time ruling was collected by colonialists,…they can play influential role in ex-colonial land. So the commonwealth of Nations consider as good solution for internal and international conflict among the members in the time of internal and outside tensions. The main powers in the Commonwealth of Nations community can use the capacity of so many NGOs that establish around this international organization, with use of some Western slogan like equality and respect for protection and promotion of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights for all without discrimination on any grounds, including the right to development, foundations of peaceful, just and stable societies, and rights of universal, indivisible try to achieve their goals. Capacity-making is one of the main goals of any countries diplomatic missions and as it clear commonwealth of Nation makes vast opportunities for United Kingdom policy-maker system in the field of national and international level to reach aim during its process to save its international influence and take big role in “others” ‘s subject, internally and internationally. 53 countries with different maters and problems that relate with a semi-stable country like UK that can base on commonwealth agreement have effective interference toward them, is big capacity that in international process is not rejection able and it is big victory for ex-colonists toward Ex-colonised.    

14- Commonwealth of Nations has no role in its people’s life: The people who live in these 53 countries don’t feel the role of this organisation on the ground, and they don’t feel it effective so when they asked who is the Head of the Commonwealth, 85% of Australian respondents correctly and named the Queen. But the figure was lower in other countries. In the United Kingdom, 70%; Canada 61%; Malaysia 54%, and India 41%, In Jamaica, 50% got the answer right.  But their response was somewhat damaged by the fact that 25% of Jamaicans think that President Barak Obama is the Head of the Commonwealth. So Commonwealth of Nations activity is under shadow and doubt in the eye of its community. It has no effective role toward people and it has done its job with government level than people levels. 27

15-Commonwealth of Nations and following The West values: If have a look to the Commonwealth slogan it’s the exact and repeated values that Westerner narrate. It is world western common goal toward second worlds. Some slogan like Democracy, democratic processes and institutions which reflect national circumstances, just and honest government and fundamental human rights, the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary, freedom of expression and the enjoyment of such rights by all individuals regardless of gender, race, colour, creed or political belief are consider as Commonwealth’s fundamental political values and also Human rights declaration accepted as a core value of the Commonwealth.28 As well as respect for protection and promotion of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights for all without discrimination on any grounds, including the right to development, are foundations of peaceful, just and stable societies, and that these rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and inter-relation and cannot be implemented selectively.29 The process of colonist’s Westernising and civilizing of the “others” is going on, and they working on some values that is succeeding by the Commonwealth rulers now, some slogan likewise Women’s equality, gender equality and the participation of women in high-level decision-making in political, public and private sectors. But the result of this slogan is westernising women’s world to globalise their culture. They want to change the world based on their value and they don’t care of “others” cultures and values. It is clear that this value in general meaning have vast capacity that make provide for Commonwealth’ head to have interference in so many countries under the flag of this international organisation. Another slogan is the protection of the environment and an effective response to climate change; but the most world pollution is made in developing countries. The adoption of an information technology capacity as gateway to allow full access in developing countries to information that would make this community more close to each other and in this colonist will take more advantage than the others. Human rights are not seen only as a reflection of civil and political rights but as involving the need to address the challenges of development and economic equality; and a more specific recognition that poverty and economic vulnerability are critically involved in the core values of human rights within the Commonwealth. You can see some example of Commonwealth concern in its countries, is human right problems, but in this subject also the border is unclear and base on your culture and value you can have deferent interpretation and so human right also make big and vast opportunities for them to selectively put disobedience of western rule come under pressures. For example in two African members of commonwealth countries that affecting sexual minorities, one of is the Anti-Homosexuality Bill in 2009 in Uganda and the other case that about punishing of two young men in Malawi to the maximum sentence of 14 years imprisonment on sentence of sodomy.  That sentence followed an event described as a symbolic wedding which led to a charge and conviction of the crime of violating the “order of nature”. The Commonwealth Lawyers‟ Association (CLA) criticised both of these measures. 30 So as you see the liberal value (even not Western Value) is come to stage and imposed to other nations by pressure of commonwealth.  

16- Colonialist practice in commonwealth ruling: Promotion of democracy is the common slogan of Westerner in 20th and also 21th in their ex-colonialized world and under this slogan they replace the governments that are more co-operative with them. It is when some member of this community has complaint of lack of democracy process in the Commonwealth of Nations ruling, so one of the Caribbean senor at RCS meeting say that “The commonwealth says one of its founding principles is the promotion of democracy. But here is absolutely no democracy in the way the commonwealth itself operates. And the think tank, director is recorded as observing. There is a lack of openness about the way in which the Commonwealth works; a lot is done behind closed doors.  If the Commonwealth is supposed to stand for democracy and transparency, this needs to change.”31 Lack of “others” interference in the ruling of commonwealth of Nation is very clear and this international organisation has not clear path and goal and under influence of London don’t have proper attention to others opinions and this process is face with compliment of member as lack of democracy in it.

17- Commonwealth of Nations and sports games: Commonwealth of Nations community have its own Olympic Games and every four year they have this game in one of these 53 countries. it was start in 1891 at crown anniversary of British king Gorge the five 32, with four countries participation and generalized to other members of community in 1931. Last Game was in New Delhi (India) in 2010 and in 2014 in Glasgow in Scotland the games will inaugurate. India’s game in 2012 cost 6 billion dollar for its host 33. This games is a symbol of colonialism era, its beginning is symbolically related to the Crown family of UK that leaded the Crown territories for long time. The Game that is play mostly in this Games is belong to occupying time and the sports that occupier play and transpire by coloniser and this game firstly remember colonizer ‘s their Greatness and superiority on colonized people and secondly is contain settlers value and culture and thirdly show symbolically continues of cultural influence over “others” .  For example Cricket is one of the most famous Games that is very popular in Indian subcontinent and in every local place, city, stat, and in national and international level is played. It is good example of colonial time’s sport, like football in Iran that is more famous than our national playing like resealing. It is point young colonial’s people and by mass media is project to whole body of colonial’s people. So a Cricketer is a much influenced person in these countries. same as Mr Imran khan a Pakistani Cricket-based Politian personality, that nowadays is speak of his becoming Pakistani prime minister in future, And so many like this, Cricket-base big person in these countries.        

18- Sub-Commonwealth of Nations organizations: More than 90 associations 34 have been established that have the word “Commonwealth” in their title.  This is an indication of the very large number of civil society organisations, of an international character, that have a links to the Commonwealth of Nations.  The professional associations cover a vast spectrum of human activities. -         the Commonwealth Lawyers‟ Association -         the Commonwealth Magistrates‟ and Judges‟ Association -          the Commonwealth Nurses‟ Association -         the Association of Commonwealth Universities -          The Commonwealth Local Government Forum. -         The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, -         the Youth Forum -         The Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP)  

19- The Commonwealth of Nations members: The Commonwealth of Nations has 53 members that spread in all over the world Africa (19); Asia (8); the Americas (3); the Caribbean (10); Europe (3); and the South Pacific (11) with different date of membership, the most populated country like India and vast countries like Australia and Canada or small islands in pacific, Indian and Atlantic ocean that most of them re-join to the Commonwealth after world war II 35: 1.      Antigua and Barbuda 1981 2.      Australia 1931 3.      Bahamas 1973 4.      Bangladesh 1972 5.      Barbados 1966 6.      Belize 1981 7.      Botswana 1966 8.      Brunei 1984 9.      Cameroon 1995 10.   Canada 1931 11.   Cyprus 1961 12.   Dominica 1978 13.   Fiji(left1987; re-joi 1997) 1971 14.   Gambia 1965 15.   Ghana 1957 16.   Grenada 1974 17.   Guyana 1966 18.   India 1947 19.   Jamaica 1962 20.   Kenya 1963 21.   Kiribati 1979 22.   Lesotho 1966 23.   Malawi 1964 24.   Maldives 1982 25.   Malaysia (formerly Malaya) 1957 26.   Malta 1964 27.   Mauritius 1968 28.   Mozambique 1995 29.   Namibia 1990 30.   Nauru 1968 31.   New Zealand 1931 32.   Nigeria 1960 33.   Pakistan 1947 34.   Papua New Guinea 1975 35.   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 36.   Saint Lucia 1979 37.   Saint Vincent and the  Grenadines 1979 38.   Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) 1970 39.   Seychelles 1976 40.   Sierra Leone 1961 41.   Singapore 1965 42.   Solomon Islands 1978 43.   South Africa(le1961; re-jo 1994) 1931 44.   Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 1948 45.   Swaziland 1968 46.   Tanzania 1961 47.   Tonga 1970 48.   Trinidad and Tobago 1962 49.   Tuvalu 1978 50.   Uganda 1962 51.   United Kingdom 1931 52.   Vanuatu 1980 53.   Zambia 1964 54.   Zanzibar 1963    

Conclusion: The Commonwealth of Nations is a colonial era established organisation. They name it Commonwealth but the question is which wealth is there that they commonly they can share it. And also the two (colonised-colonist) also are very different in one side is occupier and another side is so many occupied. One side is looted and one said is looter 36 so which common wealth they speak about. Any way the commonwealth first time come to exist by new immigrant-made (mostly westerner) countries like Australia, Canada, New Zealand,…that called them the Crown Territories (it means these lands belong to the British Emperor or king) and it refers to the British Empire as a Commonwealth of Nations. After the collapse of British Empire, London’s decision-makers offer new mechanism to change this community and re-shape it to re-conclude ex-crown territories under a re-new umbrella, name it the Commonwealth of Nations with the same head, and now escaped countries come again under an occupier’s organisation. In this new pattern again London will re-take his role toward new independent countries relatively, although now they are not under occupiers rule. 20th century brings the end for old Emperors (like British Empire, USSR Empire), and they became realised that the old shape of colonialism also is going to finish and in new world, and maybe in near future will not happen again. They also realised that they should expand and give new priority to their sources of power and the tools which will Carrey and put it in front. They understood well that in 20th century the role of international organisation is start to supply its capacities and these elements will play good role in international stage in future, better and more lawful than the role of military marine power that worked sufficiently in Emperors ages. As the marine and military power had priority and put itself in the front of colonists practice in 15th, 16th , 17th, 18th and 19th, now it need lawful cover for such an action in new international policy and they should make military movement lawful and then use marine power to fulfil the jab, so with this future estimate, London starts his effort to make its bloc in new international atmosphere and they start to bring the Crown territories under a big international organisation by re-shaping existed commonwealth community under the head of British Empire’s symbol  (the Queen Elizabeth) and they successfully establish a 53 – membered organization under the rule of The Crown. London, by establishing Commonwealth of Nations had a very good international diplomatic manoeuvre, and politically in one hand shows its continues leadership over ex-crown territories by put the Queen as head of this international wing symbolically and in other hand shows the ex-interrelate is going on relatively. It show that although UK direct ruling over the Crown land is finished but the long cultural influence over this territories is start and their long working come to fruit. Long-time ruling over foreign lands have some result for them that today they can make a base on it to catch new aim, and continue ex-process fairly. One of basic colonial result is spreading colonist’s English language and they were announce it compulsory in academic courses in colonial time and as result today English language is formal language in so many ex-colonial territories and by the Commonwealth mechanism they make it more stranger and vast, so in this subject with the effort of London, Commonwealth is the continues of colonial era and post-colonial literature and usage of English in commonwealth process speed up raising English language in modern commonwealth period. With the expanding of English language and also English-written media as well as newspapers, magazine, web, book,… colonist’s culture and language also spread, so today English language is going to became significant diplomatic, scientific, international-formal language and in this regard colonial and commonwealth time does not have different. In this regard the USA also as ex-Crown territories that never became of the Commonwealth’s member also moves in the same direction with his Ex-colonizer in UK. Nowadays Commonwealth of Nations has no constitution and base on traditional and some agreements of its member’s forum under heading of the Queen and executively by General Secretary is rule, and so many NGOs that related to this organisation are coming to exist and follow its goals.one of its basic agreement is human right declaration this commonwealth of Nations use this capacity to impose liberal (even not Western) Value to East for example in this regard I can name homosexuality. The other capacity that commonwealth use, is expanding and safeguarding democracy as core value of its organisation, by its electoral observer’s wing operation and human right issue that this two things always use to put “others” under pressures. It is obvious fact that pure and absolute democracy and human right order does not exist in any country. And the “others” weak point in this regard change to a good tool in the hands of ex-colonist to put their enemy under pressure and follow their interests. Zimbabwe is good example of this case. The capacity of having interference in other nations land was one of the results of colonial time and following some international value that confirm in commonwealth heads forums like human right and democracy make huge capacity for commonwealth runner to have interference in its member’s internal affairs. So interference in other’s internal affairs is a continue situation by different excuse now by the London –established commonwealth capacity. Missionary group with use of liberal and western’s values capacities; under flag of free expression and free speech and back of their safe western-establishment, continue the process spreading Christianity in other nation, the process that was strongly going on during colonial time and continue till now, a sensitive job that in India make a strong reaction in Hindu society for example. The Orissa (an Indian rich eastern state) riot that start against Christianity, is a recent anti-Christianity37 movement that show the deep reaction and worried that ex-colonialized culture feel about such action.

REFERENCE :

 

1-       Childs and Williams define imperialism as the extension and expansion of trade and commerce under the protection of political, legal and military controls (Williams as qtd. in McLeod 2000: 8) 2-       The total result looked for by colonial domination was to convince the natives that colonialism came to lighten their darkness. The effect consciously sought by colonialism was to drive into the native’s head the idea that if the settlers were to leave, they would at once fall back into barbarism, degradation and bestiality (Fanon 1967:169). 3-     http://www.know-britain.com/general/commonwealth.html 4-       Page 67 - http://web.usal.es/~anafra/Empire-Commonwealth-History.pdf 5-       War for Independence  -  http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/War-for-Independence.topicArticleId-25073,articleId-25022.html 6-       Modern era is the time of re-joining of Indian subcontinent countries to commonwealth of Nation after world War II In 1949.” In 1947, India and Pakistan became independent after a long struggle against Britain. Two years later India decided that it also wanted to stay in the Commonwealth as a republic and agreed to accept the British king or queen as a symbol. The Commonwealth became ‘a free association of independent nations.’ The modern multi-racial Commonwealth was born” http://www.youngcommonwealth.org/the-commonwealth-story/ 7-       Cameron and Mozambique joined, although they were French and a Portuguese colony. http://www.lmg.pf.bw.schule.de/faecher/englisch/landeskunde/page0/page0.html 8-       Commonwealth literally means a form of administration signifying government by the common consent of the people. Two eminent political thinkers of the 17th century, Hobbes and Locke, in their writings described the term 'commonwealth' as an organised political community similar to what is meant in the present day by the word 'state'. Certain states of the United States of America. http://www.banglapedia.org/HT/C_0315.HTM 9-       The British politician Lord Roseberry while visiting Adelaide, South Australia in 1884 termed the empire as a Commonwealth of Nations which perhaps inspired the formation of the present-day forum of the same name. http://althistory.wikia.com/wiki/Imperial_Commonwealth_(Central_World) 10-    http://althistory.wikia.com/wiki/Imperial_Commonwealth_(Central_World)   11-    It has often been said that the Commonwealth is held together by a common heritage of the English language, law and parliamentary democracy and while it is claimed that these characteristics help to generate a family feeling at its basis. http://www.parliamentarystrengthening.org/commonwealthmodule/1/1c.html 12-    The English language has spread across the world, initially because of the British Empire from the 17th to the mid-20th century, and subsequently due to the dominance of the United States, and has become the main international language of business as well as the most widely taught second language. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom 13-    www.thercs.org/society/.../Michael_Kirby_Lecture_June_2010.pdfSimilar 14-    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/521/521-h/521-h.htm 15-    http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=+%E2%80%9CCommonwealth+literature%E2%80% 16-    “Also to be hoped is a restoration of the membership of Ireland, which was associated as a dominion of the Crown between 1931 and 1949.  As his pain of past history is softened by time, the restoration of Irish membership would be an important achievement” (Michael Kirby, retired judge of the High Court of Australia) http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=HISTORICAL+ANACHRONISM+OR+FOCUS+FOR+UNIVERSAL+Michael+Kirby&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thercs.org%2Fsociety%2FFilestore%2FPDFDownloads%2FMichael_Kirby_Lecture_June_2010.pdf&ei=WZPUUJqzOejh0QGv0IHQAQ&usg=AFQjCNFivTIkmaIljWPslT_qPzWnnoIMFg&bvm=bv.1355534169,d.cWE 17-    “Christianity and colonialism are often closely associated because Catholicism, Russian Orthodoxy and Protestantism were the religions of the European colonial powers [52] and acted in many ways as the "religious arm" of those powers. [53] Initially, Christian missionaries were portrayed as "visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery". However, by the time the colonial era drew to a close in the last half of the twentieth century, missionaries became viewed as “ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them.”[54] Christianity is targeted by critics of colonialism because the tenets of the religion were used to justify the actions of the colonists.[55] For example, Michael Wood asserts that the indigenous peoples were not considered to be human beings and that the colonisers was shaped by "centuries of Ethnocentrism, and Christian monotheism, which espoused one truth, one time and version of reality” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Christianity             “Post-Colonialism” - In British colonies, for example, the colonized population had to convert to Christianity, learn the English language, and read English literature in school. As a result, they adopted Western values, and the colonizers were eventually able to rule by consent rather than violence 18-    www.keepschool.de/.../Themenbereich_Post-Colonialism.pdf 19-    http://www.e-ir.info/2012/11/26/the-impact-of-european-colonialism-on-the-indian-caste-system/ 20-    www.doughtystreet.co.uk/files/Commonwealth%20Today.pdf 21-    www.michaelkirby.com.au/.../2462-DOUGHTY-STREET-LECTURE... 22-    Prime Minister Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru proposed the replacement of the term 'British Commonwealth' by 'Commonwealth of Independent States'. The other members agreed that the British monarch should be 'the symbol of the free association (Commonwealth) of member nations and as such head of the Commonwealth', regardless of whether a member country retained the British monarch as its head of state or not. Therefore, Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, monarch of a number of other states, and the head of the Commonwealth for all the member states. She is present at all summits, but doesn't attend the meetings. http://www.banglapedia.org/HT/C_0315.HTM 23-    http://www.thecommonwealth.org/document/181889/34293/35468/214257/londondeclaration.htm 24-    www.thecommonwealth.org/subhomepage/151236/ 25-     THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS TODAY:  HISTORICAL ANACHRONISM OR FOCUS FOR UNIVERSAL VALUES? (Michael Kirby) 26-    www.thercs.org/society/.../Michael_Kirby_Lecture_June_2010.pdf 27-    www.doughtystreet.co.uk/files/Commonwealth%20Today.pdf 28-    www.ausaid.gov.au/partner/Documents/comsec-assessment.doc 29-    www.thecommonwealth.org › Secretary-General › Ask Sharma 30-    www.thercs.org/society/.../Michael_Kirby_Lecture_June_2010.pdf 31-    Page 32 www.thercs.org/society/.../Michael_Kirby_Lecture_June_2010.pdf 32-    www.weareengland.org/page.asp?section=56 33-    www.thenational.ae/.../indias-6-billion-commonwealth-gamble-begin... 34-    http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/191086/191247/the_commonwealth/ 35-    http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/142227/members/ 36-  These colonial powers were interested in increasing their own political power and exploited the colonies’ resources. Most of the indigenous peoples of colonial territory were oppressed and enslaved by the occupying power. Sometimes they were even murdered or deported from fertile land to make room for new settlements. www.keepschool.de/.../Themenbereich_Post-Colonialism.pdf 37-    http://www.worldwatchmonitor.org/english/country/india/25389 Some sites address that used in this article is: A.      http://www.thecommonwealth.org/document/181889/34293/35468/214257/londondeclaration.htm). اعلامیه لندن در سال 1949 B.      THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS TODAY:  HISTORICAL NACHRONISM OR FOCUS FOR UNIVERSAL VALUES?  - http://www.thercs.org/society/Filestore/PDFDownloads/Michael_Kirby_Lecture_June_2010.pdf C.      CHAPTER II Post colonialism: A Globalized  Perspective  D.      The Impact of European Colonialism on the Indian Caste System E.       http://www.bloomsburyacademic.com/view/WritingPostcolonialHistory_9781849663298/chapter-ba-9781849663298-chapter-001.xml?print - Postcolonialism, Decolonization and Globalization F.       http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/2541/8/08_chapter%202.pdf - A Glocalized Perspective G.      The distribution of New Commonwealth immigrants in the London Borough of Ealing, I 961-66 M.DALTON Senior Lecturer in Geography, Ealing Technical College AND J.M.SEAMAN Senior Lecturer in Geography, Ealing Technical College Revised MS received I7 M - http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp H.      Imperial geographies of home: British domesticity in India, 1886-1925 - Alison Blunt- http://www.jstor.org I.        What is Post/Colonial Literature, and why are they saving such terrible things about it? Theo D'haen - Leiden University September 1996 - http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/lal/11337397n4p11.pdf J.       Research Note Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses - A. J. Christopher -Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University - http://www.jstor.org/stable/30040496 K.      Cabinet Handbook (7th Edition March 2012) - the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet of Australia -http://www.dpmc.gov.au/guidelines/docs/cabinet_handbook.pdf L.       http://ebooks.cambridge.org/chapter.jsf?bid=CBO9780511563096&cid=CBO9780511563096A020 - the post-imperial commonwealth M.     Professional Development for Parliamentarians and Staff  Parliamentary Staff Training for Commonwealth Countries - Prepared by Raja Gomez - http://www.parliamentarystrengthening.org/commonwealthmodule/pdf/commonwealth%20module.pdf N.      http://www.wisegeek.com/what-was-the-balfour-declaration.htm- the Balfour Declaration   O.      THE BIRTH OF THE COMMONWEALTH -  http://www.know-ritain.com/general/commonwealth.html P.     The Commonwealth of Nations Turns 60 - http://www.english-online.at/current_affairs/commonwealth-of-nations/commonwealth-turns-60.htm Q.     British Empire from Empire to Commonwealth - http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/british-empire-from-empire-to-commonwealth.html#ixzz2BKOMstwX R.      Contemporary Trends within the Commonwealth - by Charlotte Gogstadfor Dr. Gina Hames - PLU, May 1999 S.       The Commonwealth Of Nations (1949 Present) - http://cnrsociety.org/Commonwealth_Today.pdf T.       Dominion - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominion U.      A COMMONWEALTH OF THE PEOPLE Time for Urgent Reform - http://www.thecommonwealth.org/files/241620/FileName/EminentPersonsGroupReport.pdf V.      The British Empire and Commonwealth in World War II: Selection and Omission in English History Textbooks - Stuart Foster, Institute of Education. University of London - hntres.exeter.ac.uk/history resource/journal10/papers/f W.     A HISTORY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS - http://cnrsociety.org/Empire_and_Commonwealth_History.pdf X.      History Of  The British Empire   And Commonwealth -  http://web.usal.es/~anafra/Empire-Commonwealth-History.pdf Y.     the COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS AND THE COMMONWEALTH HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MEETINGS - http://www.latrobe.edu.au/humansecurity/assets/downloads/IHS-WP-02-Stambolis.pdf   

 

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ارتباطات انسانی شاید از بهترین شاخص های انسانیت ما انسان هاست، که تبلور آن در رویارویی تفکر و تبادل احساسات با دیگران حاصل می شود، امروزه فن آوری های جدید به کمک انسان آمده و شرایطی را فراهم نموده است که بتوان سریعتر و وسیعتر با هم در ارتباط باشیم، نوشته هایم در این سایت، سیاه مشق هایی است که در کلنجار با دل به نوشته در آمده و لزوما درست و یا نادرست نیست.

"آخرین خبر رویتر"