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My English production

  • book reviow - The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

     + نوشته شده در دوشنبه نهم اردیبهشت۱۳۹۲ ساعت 12:10 شماره پست: 279

    In the name of God the munificent the merciful

    Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922-1996) masterpiece and most referenced book,The Structure of Scientific revolutions brought the “Paradigm” to exist in 1962 , as conception and scientific tools and also a theory to become one of the useful method in scientific analysis, Kuhn as one of the most influential 20th century philosophy of science by this enterprise mainly pointed natural sciences, but his theory found itself more successful in social sciences than the Natural campus and most welcomed by scientists of social campus and subsequently make a revolution to analyse social phenomenon and it shows itself effective in “problem solving” in social field. Kuhn’s method is the outcome of his dominance over historical trends and theories of science philosophy, especially his conversance over natural sciences theories like astronomy, physics and chemistry, as frequently exemplified in his book explanations to verify his theory.

    The paradigm takes meaning in the concept of “normal science” and development of sciences that “for a time provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners”. Normal science or conventional period of a science situated against “Scientific Revolution”, the tendency that every science experiences during its history and the development of any science will be happened throughout the shifting between the normal science and the scientific revolutionary.

    The conception of Paradigm as a theory, is trying to have a clear Description-explanation on how one dominant scientific theory at the exact time is entering in its normal science phase, to have “puzzle-solving” role or ability to find “acceptable solution” for its suppositious problems of a science. It wants to say how a “scientific community” shapes around a theory or how they interact with each other, and when a dictated paradigm encounters with its weakness period by facing “Anomalies” that make question of its credibility, then what will happen to its supporters and by which mechanism a formed scientific communities terminated by appearing hesitation over its scientific ability, and gradually leads the paradigm to a scientific revolution point and ultimately it shifts from an exist paradigm to a new one. And why one paradigm is replaced by another one or what will be the quality and procedure of “shifting”. Furthermore, Kuhn’s aim showed the mechanism of “incommensurability” among different paradigm devotees that is highlighted in the book.

    Kuhn’s theory in somehow is a kind of “Structure” theory. Its final goal is to analyse the normal science structure that read out a paradigm and science development. Kuhn believes that when anomalies relax the foundation of a dominant paradigm, it will alarm for a “crisis” that perhaps it will show the time for scientific revolution and necessity of emerging new theory and paradigm that ultimately should have more capacity for problem solving. Kuhn by exemplifying space theory indicated that had ruled history of astronomy sciences for centuries, as it is listed by him, Ptolemaic astronomy, Aristotle, Galileo, Copernicus, Newton then Einstein, that each of them tasted being in the position of normal science and they passed pre and post-paradigm atmosphere and each of them became normal science or “common Disciplinary Matrix” of their time that a community of scientists with a common values, methods, tools and techniques, and also with a unification of theoretical and even metaphysical approach collect around itself, and finally replaced by their successor through a scientific revolution path. Kuhn by using some others’ science theory as an example wants to say, it is a common trend of all sciences and it is repeated during scientific history.

    Kuhn paradigm shift is not a “Gestalt” commuting and shifting between Duck and Rabbit, therefor a shifted person from one paradigm to new one will not return to previous one, and a kind of incommensurability will govern between two paradigm’s followers.     

    Despite, Kuhn’s theory is efficient; the question is why we should trust Mr Kuhn’s theory that is concentrated on a natural-logical scientific shifting trend in philosophy and history of sciences. That is a cyclic and an on-going process, so who knows maybe in near future, the time of Kuhn’s theory also finish and his logical philosophy also adequate to the history of scientific.

    Course:

      Research Methodologies and Methods
    by:  Dr. Mohammad Samiei

    Book reviow

     by:

    Seyed Mostafa Mostafavi - M.A Students in Indian Studies

    Faculty of world studies - University of Tehran

     

    1392/2/7

    {jcomments on}

  • Born India

     نوشته شده در دوشنبه نهم اردیبهشت۱۳۹۲ساعت 9:43 شماره پست: 277

    In the Name of GOD

    Documentary films made by professional artists, attract and catch the viewer’s minds, so during film-watching, taking its detail and complexity would became harder, because it invites observers to go through a wonderful sightseeing that is serried in a line artistically one by one. It bombards your mentality with galore meaningful pictures and colours.

    On the other hand, viewer’s mind is shifting between amazing visual collected short film plans that plummets your eyes from one subject to another, and whole performance directs you in a certain way. Also the marvellous narration provided in such film take your attention to where the producer planed and makes it hard to understand and evaluate it in an objective way. So by going through a film once, you cannot achieve a suitable outcome.

     Also the BBC, British Broadcasting Centre, as a professional which has some interests in U.K ex-colonialized areas,is more mischievous than other such companies in this regard. But one has to confess that finding their covert agendas needs conversance and more data, because their hidden agenda takes shelter under complexes artistic techniques. 

    One of the cases that the director of this documentary film obviously tries to uncover, as it described, is the economic division among Indian social classes and the discrimination which is going on in India’s new born society.It was the subject that takes part among highlighted subjects by the producers in a good and artistic manner.Big division between riches and poor classes in new India has brought the inequality rate of society enjoyment over the huge new wealth of India, under question,especially in India’s healthcare’s field that the government of India allocates very small part of its GDP to this essential sector (1). Therefor High standard hospital that are provided by the privet sector (2) in India are at the service of a small quantity of rich Indian people, because of high cost it doesn’t allow others to take service from them and very low standard and unequipped therapeutic centres shared by the rest of Indians is their only place for treatment.

    While old India radically was trapped in a social discrimination in the shape of religious traditions that expressed itself in the “Cast System” law, now the new born India is suffering from social and economic disorder which both of them brings discrimination for their society.The casting system which had to be removed by the new Indian revolutionary constitution, which came to practice after independent in 1950s (3), and it forbade practice casting system at all levels, have not been practically removed till now and it plays its role in political as well as social Indian parts. New born India faced high rate of economic development but the discrimination to share development’s income also added to their problems.

     As result of this change of economic paradigm, that happened by investment law reforms in 1990s,a small rich community who are going to be rich and richer, and a vast community that is going to be poor and penny less is emerging. The fruits of economic developing are going to the avaricious rich men’s pocket and its side effects like unemployment and etc. is for the lower classes.

    So a part of India’s society find themselves support less.Nowadays so many social movements are active all around this country and they are fighting for their fundamental rights and separatist see this situation to use it for their own favour.  The Naxalites (Maoists) are the best example in this regards the vast variety of left-wing militancy groups who are active in the region named "Red Corridor" (4),the stretched area from West Bengal state in North East to Karnataka state in the South West. They are active across 220 districts out of 655 in two third of Indian states (20 out of 30) and occupy or effect about 40% of India’s territories by their operations. 

     Growing Naxalites operations in major urban centres including New Delhi and other major cities as well as rural area especially, year by year, is going to make them asthe most serious internal threat to India's national security” as Prime Minister Manmohan Singh cautioned on 2007,security alarms went off in India.Based on Indian intelligence reports Naxalites guerrillas are estimated at about 20,000 armed rebels and include 50,000 regular or fulltime organizers and mobilizers, with the numbers growing (5). Therefor Naxalites military operations made India’s security organisations ineffective in the last decade.This active movement was born faraway, in undeveloped and hard to live rural areas, mostly backward tribunal parts and it could be named as a movement for fundamental rights.

     A part from some illegal movements, so many legal social movements is also mobilized by using the democracy capacity to follow their right. And some of them gathered around political party that shaped on exact social subjects. The best example in this regard isDalits backward society” that is the subject of some socio-political mechanism that strong political party (6) like BSP and SP appeared as rival for nation-wide political structure like INC in U.P, the most populated and very important state in India (culturally,religiously and politically).   

    India’s’ ambitious leaders although have been trying to take India forward economically, and they were successful during last decade, but it is inevitable that an industrialized economy would reduce employment rate,because India is going to become an industrialized country and industrialization means employing machine instead of human work force, and every utilized machine means replacing a machine by so many hand workers which the outcome of this process would be a disaster for a traditional India that is founded on the hands of worker’s power. Now Industrialized India does not have so many jobs for its big worker’s market, consequently India will face unemployment (7)which directly pointed its low classes.

        Rural area are the biggest populated sectors in India’s economy that employ nearly 70% of this society, although it is engaging mostly in agrarian field as one of the big economic sectors, but lack of land for the workers forces this section to shows its evil face when India is faced with “free labour” phenomenon.A big community that just offers a small unsuitable place to live, and a miniscule amount of food, barely enough to keep them alive to work instead of their service by their landowners.

    The pressure and heaviness of the works is on the weakened bodies of a big society that has no vision of improvement in the future, so no wonder that the media report many cases of suicide amongst this group of people every year.  

    Indian leaders consider China as their rival in Asia and in the international economy as well as military fields and they point to reach to this competitor’ economy developing rate. But it is clear at the time that China put its development base on producing goods and also services, India now cannot play as a goods producer like China and their economy is far from China.India is active in service sector more than goods production. It is also forecast able that India, by tasting high economic development rate, and as result of the enlargement of its middle classes members (8), their internal demand for consumption of goods and service is going to be more and more, so it will take more energy of their economy to response to the request for more goods and service by its high populated nation and would lead them to pay more attention to their internal market, therefor it will make India’s income of external trade less and reduce its development.

    Furthermore, high number of India’s population will have a double side role in India’s future, on one hand it will provide a young force for taking India forward and on other hand it will play as obstacle for focusing on its problem and becomes as problem itself. 

    it is predictable that in future the world will be in the hands of China and India the two Asian regional power that nowadays with long distance from US economy are in the path of tasting high economic development rate, but it is under the question that how it will be possible when this two countries surrounded by so many internal and external problems. Especially India is faced with his social, economic, political, military transition from a traditional non-aligned member to a western ally at least in south Asia affairs. Now it seems that the west door is opening towards India to buy more and more arms and to be the first in the continent. The country that is neighboured by two strong nuclear armed forces and so many separatist internal groups and high rate of poverty and low rate income Indian by the index of GDP per capita and high rate of social crime like rapes case that shocked Indian society that show lack of social security for women in the traditional society that tasting transitional period to a kind of modernised one. The country that starts high cost build-up army procedure, that nobody can see an end for it. (9)

    Course:

      Social Structure of India
    by: Dr. Heshmat Sadat Moinifar

     Occasional paper on a film Review

     By:  Seyed Mostafa Mostafavi

    M.A Student in Indian Studies

     Faculty of world studies - University of Tehran

     1392/2/5

  • Dear American friends, It’s your time

     Dear American friends, as the political atmosphere of your upcoming election shows, in this electoral campaign, Miss Clinton and Mr. Trump will fight for white House’s ruling; That was our time and we done as you saw; It’s your time, you will have an important election, to choose war or peace, and I don’t know what you will do; as I monitor Mr. Trump’s electoral speeches, I found him an extremist and fighting man than a politician; I think he will come to open new war ground in the world; although Miss Clinton’s electoral speeches was full of threat to others also, but she is a politician and she was president Clinton’s spouse and as ex-FM minister, and I think she can play this role better than a businessman (Trump). That is my opinion and nothing else. It’s up to you, to do whatever you like. She promise to follow Mr. Obama’s approaches toward world’s problems (as peaceful and successful approaches that he had toward Iran), so her political perspective is clear than Mr. Trump for me. The world is burning in the war and it need to peaceful men than warmonger.

     
    + نوشته شده در شنبه هجدهم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۵ساعت 21:17 PM توسط سید مصطفی مصطفوی
  • I love you, because you love me too

    I love you, because you love me too

    Oh my God

     How can I forgot you, when I see you everywhere?

    How can I ignore you, when you are everywhere?

    How can I leave you, when everywhere Is for you?

    How can I refuse you, when you invite me forever?

    How can I neglect you, when you create all for us?

    I love you, because you love me too

  • Mr.GILLES KEPEL (1955 - ) - French School of Orientalism

    + نوشته شده در جمعه نوزدهم آبان۱۳۹۱ساعت 19:37 شماره پست: 201

     French School of Orientalism GILLES KEPEL (1955 - )

    Base on the late Edward W. Said‘s classification of the orientalists, we are facing with three school of orientalism, One of them is “French orientalism School” that have own way and own style. A yang and well-known French school of orientalism is Professor GILLES KEPEL. He has fairly direct studies on Islam and Middle East and penned so many books and articles about Islam and The Middle East. Some of his Famous articles and book are titled as following:

    “The Roots of Radical Islam”

    “The Revenge of God: the Resurgence of Islam, Christianity and Judaism in the Modern World” 

    “Allah in the West: Islamic Movements in America and Europe” 

    “Jihad: the Trail of Political Islam”

    “The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West”  

    “Al Qaeda in its own words”

     “Beyond Terror and Martyrdom: the Future of the Middle East”

     On April 17, 2002, Mr. KEPEL had an interview with Joanne J. Myers, in this interview he speaks about his opinion, especially those which come in his book titled “Jihad: the Trail of Political Islam”. Mr. KEPEL announce that Islamic “political-religious movements” come to exist or appeared when “Nationalism” in Arab world die, it mean that Islamic movement is the fruit of failing nationalism in Islamic world and so on the other hand if nationalism did not failed, now we have no political-religion movement. But I think it is not a fit theory, because sociopolitical aspects are in the heart of Islamic thought and it is not something that somebody adds to it. Islam announces that have program for all stage of human life, so the failure of nationalism cannot be the main cause for coming Islamic political-religious movements to stage.

    Although Muslims society maybe had an eye on Muslim nationalists movements, to reach their right, and the failure of Nationalist make an extra motivation for them, to change their direction, and perhaps the vacuum of disappointment encourage them to boost their political-religious movements in 1970s, but in Islamic world if instead of nationalism any kinds of political approach was active also, the reaction of Muslims were the same and they search for new way to catch their goals.

    As Mr. KEPEL declares in this interview correctly that Muslim seeking for “better future” leads them to their Islamic political-religious movements. So I can say failure of “Nationalism” in Arab world or globe cannot be the main reason and Muslim’s unsatisfactory, return them to their Islam and looking solution in own culture not in some imported “ism” like “Nationalism”.

    Another mistake of Mr. KEPEL is seeing “Iranian revolution in 1979” in the same direction that Arab movement was going on, at that time. But it is clear that Iranian revolution is rooted in a century struggle of Iranian to achieve constitutional political system instead of absolute King role system and later on the development of, democracy and Republication system and also independent from foreign domination (that in this case they had common goal with Arab movement).

    But Arab movement mostly was (and is) related to occupation of their lands (Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia and especially and mostly Palestine), that is occupied by Israel. They relatively are careless about achieving democracy because, Arab culture is more familiar to ruling of their pious, noble, and honorable class (sheiks) of society and till now also, most of them are adopt kingdom system (now it is one and half year that democracy movement in Arab world is started).

    In other hand Mr. KEPEL in his speech brings Afghanistan and Iran together, when he refers to Osama bin Laden and his organization. He also relates them to both country but it is clear that there is a confrontation between Al-Qaida (US-Saudi Arabia made Wahhabi organization by Bin Laden) and Iran. So bringing the two, in same category is another mistake by Mr. KEPEL and some orientalist like him. Al-Qaida movement is an artificial and side west-made movement on the real Islamic Movement that unfortunately attracts some Muslim to itself and it just create by West-Wahhabi wing to mislead Islamic and Noble mass movement. And they use Islamic wave and as “Wave rider” by the creation of some kind of group like Al-Qaida to catch their own fish. 

    But it is clear that when Mr. KEPEL telling the story of internal discourse in Arab’s Kingdoms countries and also their relation with big world power and the role of “jihadi” groups in between, he shows himself very mellow, well-experienced and mature.

    He also (the same as Mr. Bernard Lewis-US scholar of orientalist) picked a group of Muslim (Wahhabi-Salafi) and generalized them to all Muslim Movement in the Middle East and north of Africa. In this interview he speak of using Jihad by Wahhabi and Salafi ideology(he know them as ideology not religion) “the only solution to set up an Islamic State”, but as he mention, this kind of group mostly came to exist when the USA (and following them Saudi Arabia,…) decided to tackle USSR (the USA rival) in Afghanistan and inject of “American Treasury approximately $600 million a year” and also “the (Persian) Gulf countries So a billion-something a year for about eight years to topple the "Empire of Evil," the Soviet Union” was the beginning of this movement by those groups.

     And the mistake of Mr. KEPEL is starts when he brings together the big and right Afghan’s anti-Occupation movement with interference of USA and others in the some part of this righteous and pure honest straggle.

     Another unjust mix by Mr. KEPEL is bringing the anti-Occupation Islamic movement against Israel with Wahhabi and US-led and made Al-Qaeda movement. But in fact and obviously Al-Qaeda beside some rarely speeches of its leaders against Israel, does not have any practical action against Israel till now (for example military operation as they actively have a lot in Islamic country) so how can Mr. KEPEL and other orientalists mix this two, and also generalize them to a vast Islamic Movement. It is show that Mr. KEPEL as well known expert of Middle East also trapped in US-Made Wave.          

    This is a fact that other Islamic movement (in Palestine and other Islamic world) use the opportunities and the space that given by the west and their key allies (like Saudi Arabia), during fight against USSR in Afghanistan, to promote himself, but In fact this two movement are different, and you cannot see them in the same spectrum.

    This is also a fact that fortunately point out by Mr. KEPEL that Al-Qaida is so suspicious phenomenon that even its funders neither can nor trust them so “King Fahd did not accept” to even protect his country against Saddam Husseinby Al-Qaida fighters and put them away from Saudi Arabia territory and he prefer to use West-Christen warrior instead of Islamic US-Wahhabi made Al-Qaida. So orientalists also cannot put this kind of group that is not trusted by their founder as foundation of their scientific analysis of Islamic political-religion Movement.

    Mr. GILLES KEPEL on 11 November 2004 had an interview about his book that titled “The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West” with “OPENDEMOCRACY”. One of the key meanings in Mr. GILLES KEPEL thought is “the Middle East, see violence as the only way to change the present state” that he believe that, this strategy adopted by Islamic Movement. Mr GILLES KEPEL frequently uses as central fact in his thought, this is as given core character for Islamic Movement, but if you look to the contemporary major Islamic Movement, you can see most of them are non-violence. Iranian 1979 revolution (as he exampled as successful one) is completely weaponless. the other main Islamic Movement, that have a Palestine-based subject, also mainly are armless and it is years and the years that its engine is “Intifada” by people and except Hezbollah in Lebanon (that is also is an anti-occupation straggle by Lebanon’s people) are also non-violence (till 2004 the time of this interview). So except US-Wahhabi armed group against USSR, most of real Islamic Movement are non-violence and civil-based and carrying public desire.

    Mr. GILLES KEPEL properly Find and senses the hate of civil-society of Middle Eastern against Israel (as Occupier of their land) and have appropriate notice to American Neo-Cons that “As long as this continues, the neo-cons have no chance to win the support of Muslims or middle–east civil societies against radicals and terrorists.”   

    —  GILLES KEPEL (2002). “Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam”. An interview by Joanne J. Myers. http://www.cceia.org/resources/transcripts/135.html [Accessed 16/05/08]

    —  GILLES KEPEL (2004). “The war for Muslim minds: an interview with Gilles Kepel”.http://www.opendemocracy.net/debates/article-5-57-2216.jsp

    Friday, 09 November 2012

     

    Seyed Mostafa Mostafavi

    {jcomments on}

  • My English Production

  • Myanmar-Hi the great Buddha, wake up and see

    Hi the great Buddha

    wake up and see, your non-violence weapon has lost its effectiveness now

    When you spoke of non-violence and the violence headed like bloodthirsty, totaliter emperor Ashoka the great, Changed to a Peaceful and non-violence man By your teaches, I became very hopeful toward your teaches; but it seem that your powerful weapon which changed warrior Ashoka the great, also has lost its efficiency now. As you can see, the violence forces became so powerful that, they captured all the world battlefield. They became so powerful that, its description is very hard. irrespective of The Violence forces who had been engaged in, previously, your follower also start to doing the same. If you have a look to Myanmar, it will show you that the violence forces in this area are your followers. In this region your Ahimsa weapon has lost its effectiveness completely and your follower transcend from all worse violence forces in the world

     

     + نوشته شده توسط سید مصطفی مصطفوی در 9:56 AM | چهارشنبه چهاردهم اسفند 1392

     

  • Please change your policy toward us

    Please change your policy toward us

    Mr. Donald Trump

    president of the United States of America

    Hi sir

    Please change your policy toward us,

    First of all, I want to honestly announce that, when you came to power, as same as many others in the world, I became worried, but not sure, what will happen, if it will be as the world predict it, or not?!, and we were willingness to be something else, and not as it was predicted.

    As they were placed, Saudi Arabia as your first foreign official tour’s destination, I and many others became more hang up of your policy and ambitions, and when the world were watching your “sword dance” with that revengeful people, morality and civilization’s millstone start to shak with this alignment, and became more hesitated, that what the world could be in future, with such a combination.

    The president of the most civilized and democratic country, now has “sword dance” with the guardian of the most horrible system of ruling and thought in our region. The world knows, and of course the US president should be aware of Saudi Arabia desire in using “Islam” and “money” to imprisoned the Middle East people and the world of Islam as well, with the most backward and cruel thought of Wahhabi.

    US people as well as its government have been tasted this ideology’s cruelty, during terrorist attack on the “Twin Tower...” on 9/11/2001, which unfortunately so many innocent US citizens were killed, and plus the killing of guiltless people in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria… by Al Qaeda, Taliban, Daisha…, which were backed by this “ideology” and “money”, but nowadays the US president ignores such a reality and is in quest of alliance with such a spiteful people against others?!!

    for what?!

    For some vastness of Dollars? 

    I couldn’t impose this idea to my mind, that the ridiculous US president wants to ask for money from such a people, who are living with sword, and they want to solve their problem with it, in 21st century, and they cannot cover their desire to kill other people, just as a fun or for extinguish their inner flame of hatred.

    Mr. president!

    Now we are hearing of western civilization and values, is it the western values, that made you allied with such a backward people, just because of money?

    As you (American) have tasted their flame of animosity during “The September 11 2001” terrorist attacks…, we also have tasted their brutality during “Imposed Iran–Iraq War” (1980- 1988), and we know them and have learn how to counter their ill will during our long history, but I cannot imagine a civilized America potentially side by side of terror and hostility.

    I heard that you want to help Iranian people…, but I should say, if you don’t want to be written as one of the Iranian historical development and freedom seeking obstacles again, please do not repeat your shameful interfere in our struggle for development, freedom and democracy processes, as you had played during anti Mohammad Mosaddegh (1882-1967) government coup (1953).

    If you want to be helpful to Iranian in their struggle to achieve high range of freedom and democracy, please be helpful with our new elected president as Iranian’s flag of ambitions, and be loyal to your signature and commitment under Iran - 5+1 Nuclear deal..., 

    I write to you, to ask, to review your policy toward a civilized nation like Iranian

    Thanks to hear me

    I wish the best for the American nation

    As one of the newest, pioneer and developed nation in the world.

     

    Please change your policy toward us

     

     

     

    آقای دونالد ترامپ

     

    رییس جمهور ایالات متحده امریکا

     

    سلام

     

    لطفا سیاست خود را در مورد ما عوض کنید

     

    پیش از هر سخنی، صادقانه می خواهم اعلام کنم که، موقعی که شما در قدرت حضور یافتید، مثل بسیاری دیگر در جهان، من هم نگران شدم، اما مطمئن نبودم که چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد، آیا اوضاع همان خواهد شد که دنیا پیش بینی می کند یا خیر، و یا روند طور دیگری رقم خواهد خورد، و ما در این آرزو بودیم که شرایط به گونه ایی دیگر رقم بخورد، و آنطوری که پیش بینی شده، نباشد.

     

     از آن موقع که اولین مقصد سفر رسمی خارج از امریکای شما را بعد از انتخابات، عربستان سعودی تعیین کردند، من و بسیاری در دنیا بیشتر حیرت زده و سوال ها در مورد مقاصد و سیاست شما افزایش یافت، و از زمانی که دنیا به تماشای "رقص شمشیر" شما با این مردم کینه جو نشست، با این ائتلاف ستون های اخلاق و تمدن به تکان درآمد، و بیشتر حیرت زده شد، که جهان در آینده با این چفت و جوری که شما رقم زدید، چه صورتی خواهد داشت.

     

    اکنون رییس جمهور بزرگترین کشور دمکراتیک و متمدن (امریکا) را می دیدیم، که در حال "رقص شمشیر" با نگاهبانان بدترین سیستم حکمرانی و تفکر در منطقه ما بود. جهان می داند، و البته رییس جمهور امریکا هم باید بداند که هدف عربستان سعودی حصر مردم خاورمیانه و جهان اسلام به وسیله "اسلام" و "پول" در زندان وهابیت، به عنوان عقب مانده ترین و ظالم ترین نوع تفکر است.

     

    مردم امریکا و همچنین دولتش خشونت این ایدئولوژی را در جریان حملات یازده سپتامبر بر برج های دوقلو و... لمس و حس کرده است، که متاسفانه تعداد زیادی از مردم بیگناه امریکا کشته شدند، و بعلاوه آن کشتن مردم بی گناه در افغانستان، عراق، سوریه و... به وسیله القاعده، طالبان، داعش و... که به وسیله این "ایدئولوژی" و "پول" حمایت و پشتیبانی می شوند؛ اما این روزها رییس جمهور امریکا این واقعیت را نادیده گرفته و به دنبال ائتلاف با چنین مردم کینه جویی علیه دیگران است؟!!

     

    برای چه؟!

     

    برای مقداری دلار؟

     

    برای من باورش مشکل است و به سختی می توانم این نظر را در ذهن خود فرو کنم، که رییس جمهور ثروتمند امریکا از چنین مردمی بخواهد درخواست پول نماید، مردمی که هنوز با شمشیر زندگی می کنند و می خواهند مشکلات خود را توسط آن در قرن بیست و یکم حل کنند، مردمی که درونمایه خواست های خود را حتی نمی توانند پنهان کنند که برای تفریح و خاموش کردن شعله های نفرت خود، از دیگران می کشند.

     

    آقای رییس جمهور!

     

    اکنون ما از ارزش ها و تمدن غرب می شنویم، آیا این همان ارزش های غرب است که شما را با چنین مردم عقب مانده ایی موتلف می سازد، آن هم فقط برای پول؟

     

    همانگونه که شما (امریکایی ها) شعله های حیوانیت آنها را در حوادث تروریستی 11 سپتامبر چشیدید، ما هم ظلم آنان را در جریان جنگ تحمیلی ایران و عراق (1359 تا 1367) چشیدیم، و آنها را می شناسیم و در طول تاریخ خود یاد گرفته ایم که چگونه با آنان مقابله کنیم، اما چیزی که برایم من قابل هضم نیست، این که چگونه امکانات متمدنانه امریکا، دوشادوش ترور و خشونت قرار می گیرد.

     

    من شنیدم که شما می خواهید به مردم ایران کمک کنید و... اما باید بگویم که اگر شما نمی خواهید که دوباره نام شما به عنوان یکی از موانع تحصیل آزادی و توسعه تاریخی ایران ثبت شود، لطفا از تکرار دخالت شرمگینانه خود در فرایند تلاش دمکراسی خواهانه، آزادیخواهانه و پیشرفت خواهی مردم ایران دست بردارید، همان دخالتی که در کودتای سال 1332 بر ضد دولت دکتر محمد مصدق داشتید.

     

    اگر شما می خواهید برای ایرانیان در فرایند تلاششان برای رسیدن به درجات بالای آزادی و دمکراسی کمکیار باشید، لطفا نسبت رییس جمهور منتخب جدید که به عنوان پرچمدار خواست و آرزوهای مردم ایران است، کمک یار بوده، و همچنین به امضا و تعهد خود ذیل قرارداد 5+1 و ایران (برجام) وفادار باشید.

     

    از این جهت برای شما نوشتم، تا از شما بخواهم که در سیاست خود مقابل مردم متمدنی مثل مردم ایران تجدید نظر کنید.

     

    تشکر می کنم از این که به حرف های من گوش فرا دادید

     

    برای مردم امریکا به عنوان یکی از جدید ترین، پیشگام ترین و توسعه یافته ترین ملل در جهان، بهترین ها را آرزو دارم

     

  • Secularism In India

    + نوشته شده در یکشنبه هجدهم فروردین ۱۳۹۲ ساعت 15:58 شماره پست: 265

    contents

    introduction

    1-    what is a secular system?

    2-    what dose secular system means?

    3-    history of secularism in india

    4-    meaning of secular government in india

    5-    secularism in india constitution

    6-    does secularism practically exists in india?

    in the name of god the most compassion and the merciful

    i do not expect india of my dreams to develop one religion, i.e., to be wholly hindu or wholly christian or wholly mussulmen, but i want it to be wholly tolerant, with its religions working side by side with one another.”       

    "i swear by my religion, i will die for it. but it is my personal affair. the state has nothing to do with it. the state would look after your secular welfare, health, communications, foreign relations, currency and so on, but not your or my religion. that is everybody's personal concern"          mahatma gandhi.

    introduction:

    necessity of secularism for a plural and diversified india is as important as lung for a live body.  although indian constitution was sign up on secular lines but india made itself as paradise of different faiths in 1976, by a revision in its constitution and placing the word “secular” in it, and put the republic of india in a new shining paradigm, by choosing secular system that indian faiths were accepted, and indians were expected to tolerate all religions and religious and cultural pluralism were recognised by this act clearly and officially. long and bloodiest civil war among politicised religion’s followers during and after independent and possibility of continuously clash between different cultures in indian territories and diversity that exist there lead wise indian policy-makers to make india as paradise for any believe and any approach of religions by choosing secular system.

    what is a secular system?

    it is a wrong perspective to know a secular system as non-religion or anti-religion system. india is one of the most religious country in the world and in this political unit, religion and philosophy is descent to the living style level of indian people so secular approach to the governing part (as container of power), is irrespective to society’s religion affairs and considers religion as privet side of any members of its society’s life.

    what dose secular system means?

     the encyclopaedia of britannic defines secular as ‘non-spiritual, having no concern with religious or spiritual matters’. so a secular state is neither a godless state nor an irreligious state nor an anti-religious state. dr. bhimrao ramji ambedkar (1891-1956), the architect of the indian constitution said “secularism does not mean that we can abolish religion. it does take into consideration the religious sentiments of the people. all that a secular state means is that this parliament shall not be capable to impose any particular religious upon the people.”

    history of secularism in india:

    hinduism as faith of indian majority on the whole is in the favour of diversity and pluralism so millions of gods and goddess are accepted and welcomed in it and in somehow secularism is laying in its principals. it also has a strong tradition of freedom of integrity and tolerance of religious in its diversity. india as traditional society contains many traditions remaining their origin in part to the different religions that exist there. upanishads as old hindu scriptures speaks of “sarva dharma samabhava”, which means respect for all belief systems.

    secularism in india, in somehow is a confronting with communalism, an anti-secular and minority movement that during and after independent made and prepare a two-polar society, that clashes among them take millions lives. although during the freedom struggle, secularism was emerging as the most dominant principle and the leaders of the “indian national congress party”, like sheri late mahatma gandhi, sheri late maulana abul kalam azad, sheri late jawaher lal nehru and others were deeply announced their believe and commitment to the ideal of secularism and secularism as word of the indian nation, who tired by partition and sectarian riots and above all terrorism that showed its dangerous face by assassination of mahatma gandhi, did not want any more combative talk. thus the secular principles got preserved into the indian constitution. under nehru and later his successors in the congress party, the concept of a secular nation-state was officially adopted as india's path to political modernity and national integration. unlike in the west, where secularism came mainly out of the conflict between the church and the state, secularism in india was conceived as a system that sustained religious and cultural pluralism.

     in the post independent era, the process of secularisation was in very slow speed and although constitution and governing bodies were secular, but the infiltration of communal elements all corner of indian system; even in congress government that had many leaders in important positions that were influenced by a hindu communal ideology. late 70's and the early 80's, communalism got a strong boost and it started attacking secularism in a big way, the bjp and it supporters like vhp (vishwa hindu parishad) and rss began their eruption and even hindu ideological-based militant groups such as the “bajrang dal” and the “shivsena” come to exist to forcefully bring communal movement forward. now communal forces are gathered under an umbrella with the name of “hindutva” and confronting secularism by name it as a new mask of fundamentalism and equating fundamentalism with islam.

    meaning of secular government in india:

    the word secular suggests equality for all religions and religious tolerance and respect. india does not have an official state religion. every person has the right to preach, practice and propagate any religion they choose. the government must not favour or discriminate against any religion. it must treat all religions with equal respect. all citizens, irrespective of their religious beliefs are equal in front of law. no religious teaching is imparted in government or government-aided schools. nevertheless, general information about all established world religions is imparted as part of the course in sociology, without giving any importance to any one religion or the others.

    secularism in india meant equal respect for all religions and cultures and non-interference of religion in the government affairs. also, according to the indian constitution no discrimination will be made on the basis of caste, creed, gender and class. similarly all citizens of india irrespective of one’s religion, caste or gender have right to vote. all will enjoy same rights without any discrimination on any ground. therefore, the chief aspects of indian secularism are:

    no state religion, separation of state and religion, peaceful co-existence of all religions, treatment of all religions equally by the state, equality of opportunity in the public field for all irrespective of caste or creed or race or religion ensuring equal citizenship, freedom of religion both individual and corporate

    secularism in india constitution:

     article 14: equality in front of law

    article 15:  prohibitions of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

    article 16:  equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

    article 17:  abolition of un-touch ability

    article 25:   all those who reside in india are free to confess, practice and propagate religion of one’s choice subject of course to social health and law and order. thus even conversion to any religion of one’s choice is a fundamental right. freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion

    article 26:   freedom to mange religious affairs.

    article 27:   no person shall be obligated to pay taxes, the process of which is specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious denomination.

    article 28:   (i) no religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of state funds.                  (ii) nothing in clause (1) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the state but has been     established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution.

     article 29:          (1)            any section of citizens residing in the territory of india having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have a right   to conserve the same.                (2)  no citizen shall be denied admission to any educational institution maintained by the state or receiving aid out of state funds on grounds of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.

    article 30:               (1) all minorities, whether based on religion or language shall have the right to establish             and administer educational institutions to            their choice.         (2) the state shall not, in granting, aid to educational institutions, discriminate on the         ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.

    does secularism practically exists in india:

    secular system is exists in india and its law especially is secular and the minority’s right is clearly mentioned and we can say india is perfect in this regard, but the problem is that the process of secularisation in india after independent is not complete tile now and anti-secular elements also active there and the threats to indian secularism are strong, something like politicisation of religion, casteism, communalism are three major enemy of secularism and all of them are strong now. indian secularism has three important characteristics, it is liberal (it not only ensures religious equality and liberty but also protects the rights of        minorities). it is qualified, not absolute (religious freedom is subject to reasonable          restrictions to preserve public order and health of the people). it is dynamic (the government may adopt necessary laws to achieve the goals of welfare state even if they violate the traditional principles).

    course:

      politic and governing in india
    by: dr. mandana tesheyar

    article by:

    seyed mostafa mostafavi -m.a student in indian studies

    faculty of world studies - universityof tehran 


     

     1392/1/18

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  • This is my Right; to be Wrong

    The God created me

    Individually speak to me
    He point at me
    He trust me
    He knows my ability and disability
    I am responsible to my thought and my actions just toward him
    He give me the right to be wrong, when I am searching the reality
    And the searching is endless process in my life

     

    +  نوشته شده در دوشنبه بیست و دوم دی 1393ساعت 8:15 PM توسط سید مصطفی مصطفوی

  • دانلود مقالات

    دانلود مقالات

    Ahimsa-slide.pdfpolitical_symbolism_in_hinduism.pdfAhimsa.pdfAryan.pdfBiruni_and_India.pdfBorn_India.pdfBritish_commonwealth_of_nations.pdfConception_of_Paradigm_in_Thomas_S._Kuhn.pdfCours_work_-_session_1.pdfGlobalisation_and_Hindu_Radicalism_in_In.pdfGrowth_of_science_in_Karl_Raymond_Popper.pdfINDO-US_Relationship_from_the_end_of_Col.pdfIndia_Changing_Paradigm_from_a_Non-Align.pdfIndia_Foreign_Trade_policy.pdfIndia_Foreign_Trade_policy2.pdfIndia_Foreign_Trade_policy3.pdfIndia_as_Fastest_Growing_Economy(1).pdfIndia_cast_system(1).pdfIndian_National_Congress_2004-9_Course_a.pdfIndian_National_Congress_2004-9_Course_a2.pdfKarl_Raymond_Popper_1902-1994_s_Situatio.pdfSecularism_in_India.pdfSocialism_and_Capitalism_in_India.pdfThe_Structure_of_Scientific_Revolutions.pdfWhat_does_Wittgenstein_mean_by_language.pdfdemocracy_of_India.pdfpolitic_in_India(1).pdfpolitical_symbolism_in_hinduism.pdf

  • دمکراسی در هند Democracy in India

    + نوشته شده در دوشنبه هفتم اسفند۱۳۹۱ ساعت 11:12 شماره پست: 251

    Democracy What is  

    Democracy is a government of the people, for the people, by the people.”[1]

     long-time men kind experience finds Democracy as best way to rule the societies, so approach to this way of ruling system is going to be domain in the world and nowadays spectrum of dictatorship ruling systems from one side and semi-real democracy [2] on the other side accept and recognize democracy as excellent and the good valuable way of ruling and so they name himself democrat and their systems democratic. But the first question is what democracy is?

    Democracy is a system of ruling, that people’s wills are at the core and centre of any decision making and all the decision are taken by people’s representatives who directly or non-directly chosen by the people via a democratic elections. Democracy is a system of governing and also a social philosophy [3]that every member of society has equalled right in society’s resource, opportunities, decision-making (about economic-political-social). This system provides a situation that some elected representatives of society in the behalf of rest, rule society for exact duration of time. Law has a very major and significant rule to regulate all aspects of individual and general process. All eligible citizens have a share to interfere directly (in the shape of referendum) and indirectly (by elect their representative) in the law making also. Self-determination reflects as vast and fundamental right for every member of society regardless of their class, gender, ethnic, religion… and bases on this conception other rules and laws are come to exist and practise. In other word, democracy means peoples rule, and in this respect is against Monarchy (dictatorship of one person,elites or majority) or oligarchy (dictatorship of a small group). In this school of thought, Power is consider as corrupt-maker and human with this way of ruling wants to control it, and lead it in the sorts of mechanism that power will divide in between some society’s representatives with a classified duties and also responsibilities. These society’s representatives appointed in determinate-duration that it can be extendable or fishable. So Democracy is one of a common outcome of long time humankind experience and life. They find it the most useful and effective in humankind salvation seeking in world’s human interaction mechanism till now.

     As result democracy is a common accepted concept of so many political approaches, and we see democracy as common part of deferent kind of world political school of thought, like liberal democracy, social democracy, constitutional monarchy democracy,religion base democracy… so we can see democracy in deferent kind in deferent levels and also deferent definitions of democracy is available, but with some common foundations defined. Although Democracy has some weak and strong point that One of them is possibility of “Majority dictatorship” against “minoritythat if the “check and balance system” that offer by Mr Montesquieu working well these can be solve comparatively also.

    “Why India is calls as begets democracy in the world?”

    First of all we can say that with this image-making and evaluation, the world recognises India as democracy system and it is relatively true, because most of the necessary elements that need for a democratic system is available there to show India democratic.

     Some factors like local, state and national changeable government by cast of people vote and elections, recognized multi parties system, suitable ruling structure, elected parliament’s members, strong and semi-freedom and verified mass media, Law and semi-Lawful process, independent judiciary system, levelled democratic layers from top to down level of society, defined limitation and framework of every posts in state and federal and local duties and their responsibility, capacity of changing and handing over power peacefully during the time, recognized lawful democratic action like right of demonstrate and street march by people by law and in practice, recognized right of having social and political syndicate and groups by law and in practice…

    So world can see duration of practice democracy in India with the diversity of nations, casts, religions, cultures, ethnics, in somehow history also… and any excuse like war, riot, and powerful overseas and regional enemies don’t had a meaningful effect in this regards and didn’t stop democracy process there, and relatively majority and minority have exact right there. This semi-poor nation doesn’t put election practice away because of it costly process in the vast and in somehow unreachable area, so we can see that although the last general election in 2009 costs more than USA presidential election near one billion dollars for example, They didn’t stop their democracy process and they had repeated these costly elections till now perfectly.      

     Although long India National Congress (INC) ruling over this country maybe says that, it has experienced one-party dominion system before and after independent, but it had and has large number of small and big local and national parties. India is known as multi parties, parliamentary, federal and social democracy. Indian people directly choose their representative in Panchayat [4] and Municipal elections in local level and state level and also national parliament. So Indian have direct role in choosing their society runner in local and national level and a kind of effective and relatively democratic way of ruling is going on in this country.

    Indian’s toleration is as an example in the world. In political performance level it can tolerate a foreigner ruler over a biggest and old parry so now Miss Sonia Gandhi [5]as an Italian women can takes ruling INC as well as ruling coalition of political parties called the “United Progressive Alliance” (UPA), was able to gain a majority and forms the government.

    India has 35 states and territories that at its local, state and national level, power is divided between local, state and national parties so you cannot find any moment in the more than 60 years after India independent’s history that power in all level gathered in the hand of one party, so every time, also small parties find opportunity to have a share in power, somewhere in local or national level and based on their representation in parliaments can take share in power. So Indian democracy make and prepare appropriate opportunity for independent persons,  local and national parties members as well as two big parties like BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) and INC nominee members to show their weight in any levels to taste democracy capacities. 

     India’s democracy have a capacity to tolerate a big and all India level anti-corruption movement that one person mobilize it to force prime minister of India and Indian national parliament at the end of day to take action towered corruption by pass a Law. Mr Anna Hazare’s [6]resent movement is a good example in this regard.

     India considers as biggest democracy in the world, because of two reasons in one hand India is known as second must populated country in the world after China and so because China has no democracy foundation so India will be the most populated democratic country in the world. Secondly India is seventh biggest country in the world (with 3,166,414 KM2 after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil, Australia) so in this regard also is one of the tenth biggest in the world. So in time of elections vast number of people comes to cast their vote in the one of the world most costly election that this poor people pay it to safeguard their right. 

     India’s symbolic and practical Icons of democracy are its parliaments that’s name it “Lok Sabha” as the "House of the People" or the lower house, that it has 545 members, Most of them are elect by people’s direct vote. Upper house or “Rajya Sabha” known as "Council of States”, that can have a maximum of 250 members. And “Vidhan Sabha” as state legislatures, and based on people willing the government can change at least every 5 years. Indian can cast their vote toward three kinds of candidates, A) candidates that belong to main two-parties (BJP or INC)    B) candidates that come to election under the flag of local parties    C) independents candidates.

    And although there are many critical problems that need to be solved in the India democracy performance, but we can elaborate India as marching ahead and progressive democratic country.

    References:

    1-       Abraham Lincoln quotes

    2-       Pure democracy with all of its characters is not available in the world

    3-       Foundations of Political science page 297

    4-       Local self-governments at the village or small town level in India. The gram panchayat is the foundation of the Panchayat System.

    5-       Miss Sonia Gandhi born Edvige Antonia Albina Maino, on 9December 1946 is an Italian-born Indian politician and the President of the Indian National Congress, one of the major political parties of India. She is the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi and belongs to the Nehru–Gandhi family. After his assassination in 1991, she was invited by the Indian National Congress to take over the Congress but refused and publicly stayed away from politics amidst constant prodding by the Congress. She finally agreed to join politics in 1997; in 1998, she was elected as the leader of the Congress.  Since then, Sonia Gandhi has been the President of the Indian National Congress Party. She has served as the Chairperson of the ruling United Progressive Alliance in the Lok Sabha since 2004.In September 2010, on being re-elected for the fourth time, she became the longest serving president in the 125-year history of the Congress party.

    6-       Kisan Baburao Hazare born on 15 June 1937, is an Indian social activist who led movements to promote rural development, increase government transparency, and investigate and punish official corruption. In addition to organizing and encouraging grassroots movements, Hazare frequently conducted hunger strikes to further his causes—a tactic reminiscent, to many,of the work of Mohandas K. Gandhi.

    Course:

      Politic and Governing in India
    by: Dr. Mandana Tesheyar

    Article by :  Seyed Mostafa Mostafavi

    M.A Student in Indian Studies

    Faculty of world studies - University of Tehran     

     

    1391/12/5

    {jcomments on}

دیدگاه من

ارتباطات انسانی شاید از بهترین شاخص های انسانیت انسان است که تبلور ان در رویارویی تفکر و تبادل احساسات با دیگران حاصل می شود امروزه فن آوری های جدید به کمک انسان آمده و شرایطی را فراهم نموده است که بتوان سریعتر و وسیعتر با هم در ارتباط باشیم، در همین راستا است که خواستم با داشتن وبلاکی من هم به خیل استقاده کنندگان از این سیستم پیوسته و از ان بهره مند شوم.

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